Process-Independent Force Characterization for Metal-Cutting Simulation

[+] Author and Article Information
D. A. Stephenson, P. Bandyopadhyay

Engineering Mechanics Department, General Motors Research and Development Center, Warren, MI 48090

J. Eng. Mater. Technol 119(1), 86-94 (Jan 01, 1997) (9 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2805980 History: Received August 14, 1995; Revised June 22, 1996; Online December 05, 2007


Obtaining accurate baseline force data is often the critical step in applying machining simulation codes. The accuracy of the baseline cutting data determines the accuracy of simulated results. Moreover, the testing effort required to generate suitable data for new materials determines whether simulation provides a cost or time advantage over trial-and-error testing. The efficiency with which baseline data can be collected is limited by the fact that simulation programs do not use standard force or pressure equations, so that multiple sets of tests must be performed to simulate different machining processes for the same tool-workpiece material combination. Furthermore, many force and pressure equations do not include rake angle effects, so that separate tests are also required for different cutter geometries. This paper describes a unified method for simulating cutting forces in different machining processes from a common set of baseline data. In this method, empirical equations for cutting pressures or forces as a function of the cutting speed, uncut chip thickness, and tool normal rake angle are fit to baseline data from end turning, bar turning, or fly milling tests. Forces in specific processes are then calculated from the empirical equations using geometric transformations. This approach is shown to accurately predict forces in end turning, bar turning, or fly milling tests on five common tool-work material combinations. As an example application, bar turning force data is used to simulate the torque and thrust force in a combined drilling and reaming process. Extrapolation errors and corrections for workpiece hardness variations are also discussed.

Copyright © 1997 by The American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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