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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Failure Mechanisms of High Temperature Components in Power Plants

[+] Author and Article Information
R. Viswanathan, J. Stringer

Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA 95070

J. Eng. Mater. Technol 122(3), 246-255 (Feb 15, 2000) (10 pages) doi:10.1115/1.482794 History: Received October 15, 1999; Revised February 15, 2000
Copyright © 2000 by ASME
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References

Viswanathan, R., 1987, “Damage Mechanisms and Life Assessment of High Temperature Components,” ASM International Metals Park, OH.
Viswanathan, R., and Bernstein, H., 1996, “Some Issues in Creep Fatigue Life Predictions of Fossil Power Plant Components,” ASME PVP, Vol. 335, Service Experience and Design In Pressure Vessels and Piping, W. H. Barnford, ed., Book No. H01063, pp. 99–119.
Viswanathan,  R., and Jaffe,  R. I., 1983, “Toughness of Cr-Mo-V Steels for Steam Turbine Rotors,” ASME J. Eng. Mater. Technol., 105, pp. 286–294.
Roberts,  D. I., , 1985, “Dissimilar Weld Failure Analysis and Development Program,” Final Report CS-4252, Vols. 1-7, Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA.
Roberts,  D. I., Ryder,  R. H., and Viswanathan,  R., 1985, “Performance of Dissimilar Welds in Service,” ASME J. Pressure Vessel Technol., 107, pp. 247–254.
Ellis,  F. V., , 1988, “Remaining Life Assessment of Boiler Pressure Parts,” Final Report RP2253-1, Vol. 1-5, Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA.
Henry, J. F., et al., “Failure Investigation of Longitudinal Seam Welded Elevated Temperature Header,” Microstructural Science, M. E. Blum et al., eds., 15 , ASM International, pp. 150–169.
Hickey, J. J., et al., 1995, “Investigation and Repair of a Failed Seam Welded Reheat Outlet Header,” Proc. of Conf. Welding and Repair Technology for Power Plants, Daytona Beach, Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA, May.
Chan, W., McQueen, R. L., Prince, J., and Sidey, D., 1991, “Metallurgical Experience with High Temperature Piping in Ontario Hydro,” ASME PVP, Vol. 21, Service Experience in Operating Plants, ASME, New York.
Wells, C. H., and Viswanathan, R., 1993, “Life Assessment of High Energy Piping,” Technology for the 90s, M. K. Au-Yang et al., eds., ASME Pressure Vessels and Piping Division, New York, pp. 179–216.
Viswanathan, R., and Foulds, J., 1995, “Failure Experience with Seam-Welded Hot Reheat Pipes in the USA,” ASME PVP, Vol. 303, Service Experience, Structural Integrity, Severe Accidents and Erosion in Nuclear and Fossil Plants, S. R. Paterson et al., eds., ASME, New York, pp. 187–207.
Foulds,  J. R., Viswanathan,  R., Landrum,  L., and Walker,  S. L., 1995, “Guidelines for the Evaluation of Seam Welded High Energy Piping,” Report TR-104631, Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA.
Ellis, F., and Viswanathan, R., 1998, “Review of Type IV Cracking in Welds,” ASME PVP Conference, July 1998, PVP, Vol.380, Fitness for Service Evaluation in Petroleum and Fossil Plants, pp. 59–76.
Neubauer, B., and Wedel, V., 1983, “Rest Life Estimation of Creeping Components By Means of Replicas,” Advances in Life Prediction Methods, D. A. Woodford and J. R. Whitehead, eds., ASME, New York, p. 307.
Kuwabara, K., Nitta, A., and Kitamura, T., 1985, Advances in Life Prediction, D. A. Woodford and R. Whitehead, eds., ASME, New York, pp. 131–141.
B_oiler L_ife E_valuation and S_imulation S_ystem, BLESS Code and User Manual, 1991, Report TR-103377, Vol. 4, Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA.

Figures

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Illustration of a remaining-life-assessment procedure for a common failure scenario involving crack initiation and propagation. A—embrittlement phenomena. B—unanticipated factors (excess cycling, temperature excursions, corrosion, metallurgical degradation, improper material, excessive stresses). See text for definitions of regions I and II.
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An illustration of a cold start sequence and associated variations of stress (σ), temperature (T), and critical flow size (ac) as a function of time from start
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Typical dissimilar-metal weld locations and failures
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Schematic illustration of an elevated-temperature header (courtesy of B. W. Roberts, Combustion Engineering, Inc.)
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Four types of damage in girth welds in relation to microstructure 8
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Creep cavitation in a T-section of a ferritic steel desuperheater header in a utility boiler
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Rupture in Monroe No. 1 north hot reheat line
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Creep-life assessment based on ca?? classification
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Correlation between damage classification and expended creep-life fraction for 1/4Cr-1/2Mo steels
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Ligament cracking at a tube bore hole viewed from the ID of a header
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Oxide notching at ligament cracks
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TMF cracks in GT29 (CoCrAIY) crating penetrating the INCO 739 base metal
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Typical thermomechanical cycle for a first-stage blade, showing leading-edge strain and temperature variations for normal start-up and shut-down, and an emergency shutdown  
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Macrograph of cross-section at location 6LS1, counter-clockwise side of weld sighting along flow; note ID-connected-cracking, located and detected by UT, and extent of cusp damage

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