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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Effect of Elastic Accommodation on Diffusion-Controlled Cavity Growth in Metals

[+] Author and Article Information
R. Mohan

Rouge Steel Company, 3001 Miller Rd., Dearborn, MI 48121

J. Zhang, F. W. Brust

Battelle, 505 King Avenue, Columbus, OH 43201-2693

J. Eng. Mater. Technol 122(3), 294-299 (Mar 14, 2000) (6 pages) doi:10.1115/1.482800 History: Received December 28, 1999; Revised March 14, 2000
Copyright © 2000 by ASME
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References

Evans, H. E., 1984, Mechanisms of Creep Rupture, Elsevier Applied Science, London.
Riedel, H., 1987, Fracture at High Temperatures, Springer-Verlag, New York.
Hull,  D., and Rimmer,  D. E., 1959, “The Growth of Grain Boundary Voids Under Stress,” Philos. Mag., 4, pp. 673–687.
Speight,  M. V., and Harris,  J. E., 1967, “The Kinetics of Stress-Induced Growth of Grain Boundary Voids,” Met. Sci., 1, pp. 83–85.
Raj,  R., and Ashby,  M. F., 1975, “Intergranular Fracture at Elevated Temperature,” Acta Metall. Mater., 23, pp. 653–666.
Weertman,  J., 1974, “Theory of High Temperature Intercrystalline Fracture Under Static or Fatigue Load,” Metall. Trans., 5, pp. 1743–1751.
Raj,  R., Shih,  H. M., and Johnson,  H. H., 1977, “Correction to ‘Intergranular Fracture at Elevated Temperature,’” Scr. Metall. Mater., 11, pp. 839–842.
Chaung,  T.-J., Kagawa,  K. I., Rice,  J. R., and Sills,  L. B., 1979, “Non-equilibrium Models for Diffusive Cavitation of Grain Boundaries,” Acta Metall. Mater., 27, pp. 265–284.
Speight,  M. V., and Beere,  W., 1975, “Vacancy Potential and Void Growth on Grain Boundaries,” Met. Sci., 9, pp. 190–191.
Needleman,  A., and Rice,  J. R., 1980, “Plastic Flow Creep Effects in the Diffusive Cavitation of Grain Boundaries,” Acta Metall. Mater., 28, pp. 1315–1332.
Weertman,  J. R., 1979, “Fatigue Induced Cavitation in Single-Phase Material,” Can. Metall. Quart., 18, pp. 73–81.
Raj,  R., 1975, “Transient Behavior of Diffusion-Induced Creep and Creep Rupture,” Metall. Trans. A, 6A, pp. 1499–1509.
Bower, A. F., and Chuang, T.-J., 1998, “Transient Creep Cavity Growth in Structural Ceramics,” Proceedings of CICC-1, Beijing, China.
ABAQUS Finite Element Software, 1999, User Manual, Ver. 5.8, Hibbitt, Karlsson, and Sorenson.
Frost, H. J., and Ashby, M. F., 1982, Deformation Mechanism Maps: The Plasticity and Creep of Metals and Ceramics, Pergamon Press, Oxford.
Vitek,  V., 1978, “A Theory of Diffusion Controlled Intergranular Creep Crack Growth,” Acta Metall. Mater., 26, pp. 1345–1356.
Trinkaus,  H., 1979, “Drift Diffusion in Grain Boundaries under the Influence of Stress Fields,” Phys. Status Solidi, 93, pp. 293–303.
Shewmon,  P., and Anderson,  P., 1998, “Void Nucleation and Cracking at Grain Boundaries,” Acta Metall. Mater., 46, pp. 4861–4872.
Hirth, J. P., and Lothe, J., 1968, Theory of Dislocations, McGraw Hill, New York.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Periodically spaced spherical cavities along the grain boundary. The hatched region defines the axisymmetric unit cell: (a) plane perpendicular to grain boundary, (b) plane parallel to grain boundary.
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Finite element mesh of the axisymmetric model
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Variation of void growth rate with normalized time for several a/b in γ-Fe. Note that the growth rates reach a steady state after the elastic transient.
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Temporal variation ratio of void growth rate predicted by FEM and by the Hull-Rimmer model for several a/b=0.1 in γ-Fe. Inset shows the transition from transient to steady state.
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Temporal changes in stress distribution ahead of the cavity tip along the grain boundary in γ-Fe. (a) a/b=0.01 and (b) a/b=0.1.
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Contours of axial stress normalized with far-field applied stress, σz, at four different times, t/τ. (a) 3.82E-06, (b) 2.71E-05, (c) 3.77E-05, and (d) 2.47.
Grahic Jump Location
The temporal variations of void growth rates normalized with the respective rate predicted by Hull-Rimmer model for all the three metals. The time is normalized with the characteristic time given in Eq. (10).
Grahic Jump Location
The temporal variations of void growth rates normalized with the respective rate predicted by Hull-Rimmer model for all the three metals. The time is normalized with the characteristic time given in Eq. (13).

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