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TECHNICAL PAPERS

The Use of Refractory Metals as High Temperature Structural Materials

[+] Author and Article Information
C. L. Briant

Division of Engineering, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912

J. Eng. Mater. Technol 122(3), 338-341 (Mar 11, 2000) (4 pages) doi:10.1115/1.482806 History: Received January 15, 2000; Revised March 11, 2000
Copyright © 2000 by ASME
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References

Pugh,  J., 1958, “Refractory Metals: Tungsten, Tantalum, Columbium, and Rhenium,” J. Met., 10, pp. 335–341.
Bewlay,  B. P., and Briant,  C. L., 1995, “The Formation and the Role of Potassium Bubbles in NS-Doped Tungsten,” Int. J. Hard Refractory Metals, 13, pp. 137–159.
Briant,  C. L., 1998, “Tungsten: Properties, Processing and Application,” Adv. Mater. Proc., 154, pp. 29–33.
Briant,  C. L., 1994, “The Properties and Uses of Refractory Metals and Their Alloys,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc., 322, pp. 305–313.
Brady, M. P., Zhu, J. H., Lui, C. T., Tortorelli, P. F., Walter, L. R., McKamey, C. G., Wright, J. L., Carmichael, C. A., Larson, D. J., Miller, M. K., and Porter, W. D., 1999, “Intermetallic Reinforced Cr Alloys for High-Temperature Use,” to be published in Proceedings of the Thirtheenth Annual Conference on Fossil Energy Materials, Knoxville, TN, May 11–13.
Brady,  M. P., Gleeson,  B., and Wright,  I. G., 2000, “Alloy Design Strategies for Promoting Protective Oxide Scale Formation,” JOM, 52, pp. 16–21.
Brady, M. P., Zhu, J. H., Liu, C. T., Tortorelli, P. F., and Walker, L. R., 2000, “Oxidation Resistance and Mechanical Properties of Laves Phase Reinforced Chromium In Situ Composites,” Intermetallics, to be published.
Scruggs,  D. M., Van Vlack,  L. H., and Spurgeio,  W. M., 1968, “Reaction Between Nitrogen and Spinel in Chromium,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 51, pp. 473–481.
Maykuth,  D. J., Klopp,  W. D., Jaffee,  R. I., and Goodwin,  H. B., 1953, “A Metallurgical Evaluation of Iodide Chromium,” J. Electrochem. Soc., 102, pp. 316–331.
Briant, C. L., Kumar, K. S., Rosenberg, N., and Tomioka, S., 2000, “The Effect of Purity on the Mechanical Properties of Chromium,” Int. J. Hard Refractory Metals, to be published.
Subramanian,  P. R., Mindiratta,  M. G., and Demiduk,  D. M., 1996, “The Development of Nb-Based Advanced Intermetallic Alloys for Structural Applications,” JOM, 48, pp. 33–38.
Jackson,  M. R., Rowe,  R. G., and Skelly,  D. W., 1995, “Oxidation of Some Intermetallic Compounds and Intermetallic Matrix Composites,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc., 362, pp. 1339–1344.
Bewlay,  B. P., Jackson,  M. R., and Lipsett,  H. A., 1996, “The Balance of Mechanical and Environmental Properties of a Multielement Niobium-Niobium Silicide Based In Situ Composite,” Metall. Trans. A, 27A, pp. 3801–3808.
Bewlay,  B. P., Jackson,  M. R., and Subramanian,  P. R., 1999, “Processing High-Temperature Refractory-Metal Silicide In Situ Composites,” JOM, 51, pp. 32–36.
Bewlay,  B. P., Whiting,  P. W., Davis,  A. D., and Briant,  C. L., 1999, “Creep of Nb-Si Directionally Solidified Alloys,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc., 552, p. KK.6.11.1.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
The tensile strength of niobium, tantalum and tungsten plotted as a function of temperature. Data taken from reference 1.
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The oxidation rate of tantalum, niobium, and tungsten plotted as a function temperature. Data taken from reference 1.
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Cyclic oxidation tests for samples heated to 1100°C in humid air. Data taken from reference 5.
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Creep data obtained at 1000°C and 138 MPa in humid air for Cr-8Ta-5Mo-0.5Ti-0.01Ce. The two different microstructures are indicated on the figure. Data were taken from reference 5.
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The oxidation resistance of standard niobium alloys, a Nb-Ti-Al-Cr-Hf alloy, and wrought nickel-base and cobalt-base superalloys. Data taken from reference 11.
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Oxidation data for Nb-Si based alloys at 1200°C. Also included are a commercial Nb-based alloy and Ni-based superalloy. Data taken from reference 11.
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Specific strength plotted as a function of temperature for selected alloys including a single-crystal nickel-based superalloy (PW1480). Figure taken from reference 11.
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Minimum creep rate plotted as a function of stress for selected alloys at 1200°C. PW1480 is a nickel-base superalloy, Cb753 and C103 are commercial niobium-based alloys, and TZM and Mo2Si are molybdenum based materials. Figure taken from reference 11.
Grahic Jump Location
Creep rates of Nb-Si-Hf-Ti alloys plotted as a function of applied stress. Data taken at 1200°C. Data taken from reference 15.

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