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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Three Stages of Fatigue Crack Growth in GFRP Composite Laminates

[+] Author and Article Information
Jie Tong

Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Portsmouth, Anglesea Road, Portsmouth PO1 3DJ, United Kingdom

J. Eng. Mater. Technol 123(1), 139-143 (Feb 13, 2000) (5 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1286234 History: Received October 11, 1999; Revised February 13, 2000
Copyright © 2001 by ASME
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References

Talreja, R., 1994, “Fatigue of Composites,” Concise Encyclopaedia of Composite Materials, Kelly, A., ed., Pergamon, pp. 77–81.
Highsmith, A. L., and Reifsnider, K. L., 1982, “Stiffness-reduction Mechanism in Composite Laminates,” Damage in Composite Materials, ASTM STP 775, pp. 103–117.
Laws,  N., and Dvorak,  G. J., 1988, “Progressive Transverse Cracking in Composite Laminates,” J. Comp. Mater., 23, pp. 900–916.
McCartney,  L. N., 1987, “Mechanics of Matrix Cracking in Brittle-Matrix Fibre-Reinforced Composites,” Proc. R. Soc. London, 409, pp. 329–350.
Nairn,  J. A., 1989, “The Strain Energy Release Rate of Composite Microcracking: A Variational Approach,” J. Comp. Mater., 23, pp. 1106–1129.
Talreja,  R., 1985, “A Continuum Mechanics Characterization of Damage in Composite Materials,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A, 399, pp. 195–216.
Tong,  J., Smith,  P. A., Ogin,  S. L., and Guild,  F. J., 1997, “On Matrix Crack Growth in Quasi-isotropic Laminates: I. Experimental Investigation,” Comput. Sci. Technol., 57, pp. 1527–1536.
Boniface, L., Smith, P. A., Ogin, S. L., and Bader, M. G., 1987, “Observations on Transverse Ply Crack Growth in (02/902)s CFRP Laminate under Monotonic and Cyclic Loading,” Proc. 2nd European Conference on Composite Materials, Vol. 3 , London, pp. 156–165.
Ogin,  S. L., Smith,  P. A., and Beaumont,  P. W. R., 1985, “Matrix Cracking and Stiffness Reduction During Fatigue of a (0/90)s GFRP Laminate,” Comput. Sci. Technol., 22, pp. 23–31.
Boniface, L., Ogin, S. L., and Smith, P. A., 1991, “Fracture Mechanics Approaches to Transverse Ply Cracking in Composite Laminates,” Composite Materials: Fatigue and Fracture, ASTM STP 1110, O’Brien, T. K., ed., pp. 9–29.
Boniface,  L., Ogin,  S. L., and Smith,  P. A., 1991, “Strain Energy Release Rates and the Fatigue Growth of Matrix Cracks in Model Arrays in Composite Laminates,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A, 432, pp. 427–444.
Tong,  J., Guild,  F. J., Ogin,  S. L., and Smith,  P. A., 1997, “Off-axis Fatigue Crack Growth and the Associated Energy Release Rate in Composite Laminates,” Appl. Comput. Mater., 4, pp. 349–359.
Tong,  J., Smith,  P. A., Ogin,  S. L., and Guild,  F. J., 1997, “On Matrix Crack Growth in Quasi-isotropic Laminates: II. Finite Element Analysis,” Comput. Sci. Technol., 57, pp. 1537–1545.
Guild,  F. J., Ogin,  S. L., and Smith,  P. A., 1993, “Modelling of 90° Ply Cracking in Cross Ply Laminates, Including Three Dimensional Effects,” J. Comp. Mater., 27, pp. 646–667.

Figures

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Fatigue crack growth rates in 90 and +45 deg plies as a function of total strain energy release rates
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A schematic of off-axis fatigue crack growth in a quasi-isotropic laminate
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Three stages of fatigue crack growth pattern in GFRP composite laminates. Stage I: Initiation and transient crack growth (1/S≈0,a<2d,d=ply thickness). Stage II: Steady-state crack growth (SSCG), da/dN=C. Stage III: Crack interaction (S<5d) and saturation (S≈d,da/dN→0).
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Onset of matrix cracks in 90, −45, and +45 deg plies of (0/90/±45)S laminates under cyclic loading
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Individual steady-state crack growth as a function of number of fatigue cycles in (a) 90 deg plies and (b) +45 deg plies
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Matrix crack densities as a function of number of fatigue cycles for (0/90/±45)S laminates at three stress levels (σth=84 MPa)
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Fatigue crack growth rates in 90 deg plies as a function of crack spacing S
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(a) Normalized compliance change due to 90 deg cracking for (0/90)S,(0/90/±45)S and (±45/90)S laminates; (b) normalized compliance change rate due to 90 deg cracking for (0/90)S,(0/90/±45)S and (±45/90)S laminates.

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