Cross-Sectional Mapping of Residual Stresses by Measuring the Surface Contour After a Cut

[+] Author and Article Information
M. B. Prime

Engineering Sciences & Applications Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545e-mail: prime@lanl.gov

J. Eng. Mater. Technol 123(2), 162-168 (Nov 03, 2000) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1345526 History: Received February 01, 2000; Revised November 03, 2000
Copyright © 2001 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Schajer,  G. S., 1988, “Measurement of Non-Uniform Residual Stresses Using the Hole-Drilling Method,” ASME J. Eng. Mater. Technol., 110, pp. 338–349.
Cheng,  W., and Finnie,  I., 1986, “Measurement of Residual Hoop Stress in Cylinders Using the Compliance Method,” ASME J. Eng. Mater. Technol., 108, pp. 87–92.
Lu, J., James, M., and Roy, G., eds., 1996, Handbook of Measurement of Residual Stresses, The Fairmont Press, Inc., Lilburn, Georgia, USA.
Krawitz,  A. D., and Winholtz,  R. A., 1994, “Use of Position-Dependent Stress-Free Standards for Diffraction Stress Measurements,” Mater. Sci. Eng., A, 185, pp. 123–130.
Ueda, Y., 1996, “Sectioning Methods,” Handbook of Measurement of Residual Stresses, J. Lu et al., eds., Fairmont Press, Lilburn, GA, pp. 49–70.
Rybicki,  E. F., and Shadley,  J. R., 1986, “A 3-Dimensional Finite-Element Evaluation of a Destructive Experimental Method for Determining Through-Thickness Residual Stresses in Girth Welded Pipes,” ASME J. Eng. Mater. Technol., 108, pp. 99–106.
Bueckner,  H. F., 1958, “The Propagation of Cracks and the Energy of Elastic Deformation,” Trans. ASME, 80, pp. 1225–1230.
Timoshenko, S. P., and Goodier, J. N., 1970, Theory of Elasticity, 3rd Edition, McGraw-Hill, New York, Article 96.
Flaman,  M. T., and Herring,  J. A., 1985, “Comparison of Four Hole-Producing Techniques for the Center-Hole Residual Stress Measurement Method,” Exp. Tech., 9, pp. 30–32.
Nobre,  J. P., Kornmeier,  M., Dias,  A. M., and Scholtes,  B., 2000, “Use of the Hole-Drilling Method for Measuring Residual Stresses in Highly Stressed Shot-Peened Surfaces,” Exp. Mech., 40, 289–297.
Williams,  J. F., and Stouffer,  D. C., 1979, “An Estimate of the Residual Stress Distribution in the Vicinity of a Propagating Fatigue Crack,” Eng. Fract. Mech., 11, pp. 547–557.
Johnson, M. R., Robinson, R. R., Opinsky, A. J., Joerms, M. W., and Stone, D. H., 1985, “Calculation of Residual Stresses in Wheels From Saw Cut Displacement Data,” Paper 85-WA/RT-17, The American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York.
Joerms, M. W., 1987, “Calculation of Residual Stresses in Railroad Rails and Wheels from Sawcut Displacement,” Residual Stress in Design, Process and Material Selection, Proceedings ASM’s Conference on Residual Stress in Design, Process and Material Selection, B. Young, ed., ASM International, Materials Park, OH, pp. 205–209.
Lin,  K. Y., and Huang,  J. S., 1989, “Analysis of Residual Stresses in Railroad Car Wheels Based on Destructive Test Measurements,” Theor. Appl. Fract. Mech., 12, pp. 73–86.
Dickson, T. L., Bass, B. R., and McAfee, W. J., 1998, “The Inclusion of Weld Residual Stress in Fracture Margin Assessments of Embrittled Nuclear Reactor Pressure Vessels,” PVP-373, Fatigue, Fracture, and Residual Stresses, Proceedings of the 1998 ASME/JSME Joint Pressure Vessels and Piping Conference, San Diego, CA, July 26–30, 1998, pp. 387–395.
Hibbitt, Karlsson & Sorensen, Inc., 1998, ABAQUS/Standard User’s Manual Version 5.8, Pawtucket, RI.
Mayville,  R. A., and Finnie,  I., 1982, “Uniaxial Stress-Strain Curves from a Bending Test,” Exp. Mech., 22, pp. 197–201.
Prime, M. B., Rangaswamy, P., Daymond, M. R., and Abeln, T. G., 1998, “Several Methods Applied to Measuring Residual Stress in a Known Specimen,” Proceedings of the SEM Spring Conference on Experimental and Applied Mechanics, Houston, Texas, June 1–3, 1998, Society for Experimental Mechanics, pp. 497–499.
Armco Inc., 1983, “Armco NITRONIC 40 Bar and Wire,” Product Data Bulletin S-54a, Middletown, OH.
Sommer, C., and Sommer, S., 1997, Wire EDM Handbook, Advance Publishing, Inc., Houston, TX.
Cheng,  W., Finnie,  I., Gremaud,  M., and Prime,  M. B., 1994, “Measurement of Near Surface Residual Stresses Using Electric Discharge Wire Machining,” ASME J. Eng. Mater. Technol., 116, pp. 1–7.
Magiera,  J., Orkisz,  J., and Karmowski,  W., 1996, “Reconstruction of Residual-Stresses in Railroad Rails from Measurements Made on Vertical and Oblique Slices,” Wear, 191, pp. 78–89.
Leggatt,  R. H., Smith,  D. J., Smith,  S. D., and Faure,  F., 1996, “Development and Experimental Validation of the Deep Hole Method for Residual Stress Measurement,” J. Strain. Anal. Eng. Des., , 31, pp 177–186.
Benedict, G. F., 1987, Nontraditional Manufacturing Processes, Marcel Dekker, New York.


Grahic Jump Location
Superposition principle to calculate residual stresses from surface contour measured after cutting a part in two
Grahic Jump Location
Surface tractions equivalent to releasing residual stress on cut surface. Normal traction Tx is symmetric about cut plane, transverse Ty is anti-symmetric. Illustrated for σx negative and τxy positive.
Grahic Jump Location
Finite element simulation, deformed shape of beam after separating along midplane.
Grahic Jump Location
Simulated contour method results for residual stress profile of beam with no shear stresses on cut plane.
Grahic Jump Location
Simulated contour method results from beam with shear stresses along cut plane when only the normal component (x) of surface contour is measured
Grahic Jump Location
Clamping arrangement during wire EDM cutting of beam
Grahic Jump Location
1-D surface contour measured on both halves of the cut beam. Zero is arbitrary, so the shift between the two profiles is irrelevant.
Grahic Jump Location
2-D surface contour measured on side two of beam, fitted to bivariate Fourier series
Grahic Jump Location
2-D finite element model of beam after measured contour has been applied as displacement boundary condition. For clarity, only a few elements are shown.
Grahic Jump Location
1-D residual stress results from contour method measurements on bent beam
Grahic Jump Location
3-D finite element model after measured contour has been applied as displacement boundary condition
Grahic Jump Location
Cross-sectional residual stress map from contour method test on bent beam, stresses are in MPa
Grahic Jump Location
Measured surface curvature effects depending on cutting conditions. See Fig. 6 for cutting direction.




Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In