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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Stress-Based Forming Limits in Sheet-Metal Forming

[+] Author and Article Information
Thomas B. Stoughton

GM R&D Center, MC 480-106-359, 30500 Mound Rd, Warren, MI 48090

J. Eng. Mater. Technol 123(4), 417-422 (Jul 24, 2000) (6 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1398083 History: Received July 24, 2000
Copyright © 2001 by ASME
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References

Keeler,  S. P., and Backhofen,  W. A., 1964, “Plastic instability and fracture in sheet stretched over rigid punches,” ASM Trans. Q., 56, pp. 25–48.
Goodwin, G. M., 1968, “Application of strain analysis is to sheet metal forming in the press shop,” SAE paper, No. 680093.
Ghosh, A. K., and Laukonis, J. V., 1976, “The influence of strain path changes on the formability of sheet steel,” 9th Biennial Congress of the IDDRG, Sheet Metal Forming and Energy Conservation, ASM Publication.
Graf,  A. F., and Hosford,  W. F., 1993, “Calculations of forming limit diagrams for changing strain paths,” Metall. Trans. A, 24, pp. 2497–2501.
Barata da Rocha,  A., Barlat,  F., and Jalinier,  J. M., 1985, Mat. Science Eng., 68, pp. 151–164.
Marciniak,  Z. and Kuczynski,  K., 1967, “Limit strains in the processes of stretch forming sheet steel,” J. Mech. Phys. Solids, 1, pp. 609–620.
Kleemola,  H. J., and Pelkkikangas,  M. T., 1977, “Effect of predeformation and strain path on the forming limits of steel, copper, and brass,” Sheet Metal Industries, 63, pp. 591–599.
Arrieux, R., Bedrin, C., and Boivin, M. 1982, “Determination of an intrinsic forming limit stress diagram for isotropic metal sheets,” Proceedings of the 12th Biennial Congress IDDRG, pp. 61–71.
Stoughton,  T. B., 1999, “A general forming limit criterion for sheet metal forming,” Int. J. Mech. Sci., 42, pp. 1–27.

Figures

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Forming limit diagram for 2008 T4 Al
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Selected strain-path forming limits of 2008 T4 Al from the Graf study
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Translation to stress-space of the as-received strain-space FLC as shown in Fig. 1
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(a) Forming limit curves for near-plane-strain prestrains to 0.08 (P1), and 0.13 (P2), parallel, and 0.08 (P3) and 0.14 (P4) perpendicular to the secondary forming axis; 4(b) transformation of each forming limit curve shown in Fig. 4(a) taking into account the strain path
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(a) Forming limit curves for uniaxial prestrains to 0.05 (U1), 0.12 (U2), and 0.18 (U3) parallel, and 0.04 (U4), 0.125 (U5), and 0.18 (U6) perpendicular to the secondary forming axis; (b) transformation of each forming limit curve shown in Fig. 5(a) taking into account the strain path; (c) normal scale plot of the data in Fig. 5(b) showing the loading path of the prestrain
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Schematic plot of stress-strain behavior under (A) isotropic or kinematic hardening under proportional loading and (B) isotropic hardening following unloading and reloading under a different loading condition, and (C) kinematic hardening following unloading and reloading under a different loading condition.
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(a) Forming limit curves for equi-biaxial prestrains to 0.04 (E1) 0.07 (E2), and 0.12 (E3); (b) transformation of each forming limit curve shown in Fig. 7(a) taking into account the strain path. The upper end of the short line at the bottom of the figure shows the final stress achieved during prestraining for E4 condition.

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