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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Real-Time Process Characterization of Open Die Forging for Adaptive Control

[+] Author and Article Information
T. J. Nye, A. M. Elbadan, G. M. Bone

Department of Mechanical Engineering, McMaster University, 1280 Main St. W., Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, L8S 4L7

J. Eng. Mater. Technol 123(4), 511-516 (Jul 24, 2000) (6 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1396350 History: Received July 24, 2000
Copyright © 2001 by ASME
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References

Forging Industry Association, 1993, Open Die Forging Handbook Cleveland, Ohio.
Tomlinson,  A., and Stringer,  J. D., 1959, “Spread and Elongation in Flat Tool Forging,” J. Iron Steel Inst., London, 193, pp. 157–162.
Wistreich,  J. G., and Shutt,  A., 1959, “Theoretical Analysis of Bloom and Billet Forging,” J. Iron Steel Inst., London, 193, Oct., pp. 163–176.
Pahnke,  H. J., 1983, “Fundamentals of Programmed Forging,” Metallurgical Plant and Technology, 5, pp. 92–97.
Allen,  T. W., and Cartmell,  L. J., 1968, “Use of a High Speed Press for Forging of Nickel-Base Alloys,” J. Inst. Met., 96, pp. 321.
Baraya, G. L., and Johnson, W., 1964, “Flat Bar Forging,” Proceedings of the 5th International Machine Tool Design and Research Conference, pp. 449–469.
Aksakal,  B., Osman,  F. H., and Bramley,  A. N., 1997, “Upper-Bound Analysis for the Automation of Open-Die Forging,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 71, pp. 215–223.
Kopp, R., and Beckmann, T., 1996, “Open-Die Forging with a Six-Axis Robot as Forging Manipulator,” Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on the Technology of Plasticity (ICTP), October 7–10, Columbus, Ohio.
Lilly,  K. W., and Melligeri,  A. S., 1996, “Dynamic Simulation And Neural Network Compliance Control of An Intelligent Forging Center,” Journal of Intelligent and Robotic Systems: Theory & Applications, 17, pp. 81–99.
Nye, T. J., 1999, “A Control Strategy and Upper Bound Solution for Non-Flat Tool Open Die Forging Automation,” Manufacturing Science and Engineering—MED Proceedings, ASME IMECE, Nashville, TN, Vol. 10, pp 746–753.
Shutt,  A., 1960, “A Note on Spread in Indenting,” Appl. Sci. Res., 9, pp. 389–392.
Hill,  R., 1963, “A General Method of Analysis for Metal-Working Processes,” J. Mech. Phys. Solids, 11, pp. 305–326.
Lahoti, G. D., and Kobayashi, S., 1974, “Flat Tool Forging,” Proceedings of the 2nd North American Manufacturing Research Conference, pp. 73–87.
Sagar,  R., and Juneja,  B. L., 1979, “An Upper Bound Solution for Flat Tool Forging Taking Into Account the Bulging of Sides,” Int. J. Mach. Tool Des. Res., 19, pp. 253–258.
Braun-Angott, P., and Berger, B., 1982, “An Upper Bound Approximation for Spread and Pressure in Flat Tool Forging,” Proceedings of the International Conference on Numerical Methods in Industrial Forming Processes, Pineridge Press, Swansea, pp. 165–174.
Aksakal,  B., Osman,  F. H., and Bramley,  A. N., 1993, “Analysis for the Automation of Small Batch Manufacturing Using Open Die Forging,” Annals of CIRP, 42, pp. 273–278.
Siemer,  E., Neischwitz,  P., and Kopp,  R., 1986, “Quality Optimized Process Control of Open Die Forging,” Stahl Eisen, 21, pp. 383–87.
Schey, J. A., and Abramowitz, P. H., 1973, “Incremental Forging of Parts with Cross-Ribs,” Technical paper MF73-164, Society of Manufacturing Engineers, Dearborn, MI.

Figures

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Geometry of the open die forging process
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Illustration of forging square bar between shoulders
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Scatter in experimental results of Tomlinson and Stringer 2
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Layout of an intelligent open die forging cell
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Closed loop control for intelligent open die forging
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Comparison of spread coefficient formulas versus height reduction (h0=1,w0=1,b=1)
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Comparison of spread coefficient formulas versus bite ratio (h0=1,w0=1,h1/h0=0.7)
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Comparison of spread coefficient formulas versus aspect ratio (h0=1,b=1,h1/h0=0.7)
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Experimental setup showing press with robotic manipulator
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Experimental setup close-up showing workpiece and tooling
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Comparison of elongation readings: manual versus compliance-system based
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Elongation versus reduction measurements for five workpieces (for h0=19.1 mm,w0=19.1 mm)
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Spread coefficient values for in-process measurements versus empirical estimates (for h0=19.1 mm,w0=19.1 mm)
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Spread coefficient values for in-process measurements versus empirical estimates (for h0=19.1 mm,w0=12.7 mm)
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Spread coefficient values for in-process measurements versus empirical estimates (for h0=12.7 mm,w0=19.1 mm)

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