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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Surface Texture, Fatigue, and the Reduction in Stiffness of Fiber Reinforced Plastics

[+] Author and Article Information
D. Arola, C. L. Williams

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Maryland Baltimore County, 1000 Hilltop Circle, Baltimore, MD 21250

J. Eng. Mater. Technol 124(2), 160-166 (Mar 26, 2002) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1416479 History: Received January 12, 2001; Revised July 20, 2001; Online March 26, 2002
Copyright © 2002 by ASME
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References

Abrate,  S., and Walton,  D. A., 1992, “Machining of Composite Materials. Part I: Traditional Methods,” Compos. Manuf., 3, No. 2, pp. 75–83.
Abrate,  S., and Walton,  D. A., 1992, “Machining of Composite Materials. Part II: Non Traditional Methods,” Compos. Manuf., 3, No. 2, pp. 85–94.
Howarth, S. G., and Strong, A. B., 1990, “Edge Effects with Water Jet and Laser Beam Cutting of Advanced Composite Materials,” Proceedings of the 35th International SAMPE Symposium, pp. 1685–1697.
Colligan, K., 1993, “Machined Edge Effects on the Compression Strength of Graphite/Epoxy Composite,” Masters Thesis, University of Washington.
Arola,  D., and Ramulu,  M., 1998, “Net-Shape Manufacturing and the Process-Dependent Failure of Fiber-Reinforced Plastics Under Static Loads,” ASTM J. Compos. Technol. Res., 20, No. 4, pp. 210–220.
Arola,  D., and Ramulu,  M., 1997, “Net-Shape Manufacturing and the Performance of Polymer Composites Under Dynamic Loads,” Exp. Mech., 37, No. 4, pp. 379–385.
Neuber, H., 1958, Kerbspannungsleshre, Springer-Verlag, pp. 159–163.
Zahavi, E., and Torbilo, V., 1996, Fatigue Design: Life Expectancy of Machine Parts, 1st Edition, CRC Press, pp. 193.
Arola, D., 1996, “The Influence of Net-Shape Machining on the Surface Integrity of Metals and Fiber Reinforced Plastics,” Ph.D. dissertation, University of Washington.
Arola,  D., and Ramulu,  M., 1999, “An Examination of the Effects from Surface Texture on the Strength of Fiber Reinforced Plastics,” J. Compos. Mater., 33, No. 2, pp. 102–123.
Kapur, K. C., and Lamberson, L. R., 1977, Reliability in Engineering Design, Wiley, pp. 291–332, NY.
Gibson, R. F., 1994, Principles of Composite Materials Mechanics, McGraw Hill, NY.
Charewicz, A., and Daniel, I. M., 1986, “Damage Mechanisms and Accumulation in Graphite/Epoxy Laminates,” Composite Materials: Fatigue and Fracture, ASTM STP 907, pp. 274–297.
Camponeschi, E. T., and Stinchcomb, W. W., 1982, “Stiffness Reduction as an Indicator of Damage in Graphite/Epoxy Laminates,” Composite Materials: Testing and Design (Sixth Conference), ASTM STP 787, pp. 225–246.
Gibbins, M. N., and Stinchomb, W. W., 1982, “Fatigue Response of Composite laminates with Internal Flaws,” Composite Materials: Testing and Design (Sixth Conference). ASTM STP 787, pp. 305–322.
Peterson R. E., 1974, Stress Concentration Factors, Wiley, New York.
Ramulu,  M., Wern,  C. W., and Garbini,  J. L., 1993, “Effect of Fiber Direction on Surface Roughness Measurements of Machined Graphite/Epoxy Composite,” Compos. Manuf., 4, No. 1, pp. 39–51.

Figures

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Four-point flexure apparatus mounted within the MTS grips
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Identification of the Gr/Bmi laminate flexural response from experiments and finite element modeling. (a) Confirmation of critical bend loads from quasi-static bending; (b) determination of flexure loads for flexural fatigue loading from the FEM.
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Damage of the transverse plies resulting from fatigue loading of the Gr/Bmi laminate. (a) Matrix cracking in a transverse ply (X860); (b) fiber matrix debonding (X3000).
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Apparent fatigue stress concentration factors for the Gr/Bmi laminates estimated over the cyclic load history (Kf(N)). (a) Fully reversed fatigue with F=0.75; (b) fully reversed fatigue with F=0.90.
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Surface texture and profile valley radii of the AWJ machined Gr/Bmi laminate. (a) Surface profile with 2 μm Ra; (b) surface profile with 10 μm Ra; (c) profile valley radius from (a); (d) profile valley radius from (b).
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Change in the bend load load-line displacement resulting from fully reversed flexure fatigue of a Gr/Bmi specimen. AWJ specimen (Ra=2 μm) tested with Tsai Hill Ratio of 0.9. (a) N=1,000 cycles; (b) N=60,000 cycles.
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Reduction in stiffness of the Gr/Bmi laminate resulting from fully reversed flexural fatigue loading. Error bars indicate the standard deviation. (a) Reduction in stiffness with flexural loading at F=0.75; (b) reduction in stiffness with flexural loading at F=0.90.
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Weibull probability distribution of the Gr/Bmi fatigue life for a 15% reduction in stiffness resulting from fully reversed flexural fatigue (Tsai Hill ratio of 0.75). (a) Distribution of ADS specimens (Ra=0.2 μm;) (b) distribution of AWJ B specimens (Ra=10 μm).

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