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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Thermal Loading of Duplex Steels

[+] Author and Article Information
Vadim V. Silberschmidt

Wolfson School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leics. LE11 3TU, UK

Ewald A. Werner, Christof Messner

Lehrstuhl für Mechanik und Christian-Doppler-Laboratorium für Moderne Mehrphasenstähle, TU München, Boltzmannstr. 15, D-85747 Garching, Germany

J. Eng. Mater. Technol 125(1), 56-64 (Dec 31, 2002) (9 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1525250 History: Received January 22, 2001; Revised March 12, 2002; Online December 31, 2002
Copyright © 2003 by ASME
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References

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Johansson,  K., 2000, “Duplex Stainless Steels. Past, Present and Future,” Stainless Steel World ,12, pp. 59–64.
Akdut,  N., and Foct,  J., 1996, “Microstructure and Deformation Behavior of High Nitrogen Duplex Stainless Steels,” ISIJ Int., 36, pp. 883–892.
Foct,  J., and Akdut,  N., 1993, “Cleavage-Like Fracture of Austenite in Duplex Stainless Steel,” Scr. Metall. Mater., 29, pp. 153–158.
Johansson,  J., Oden,  M., and Zeng,  X.-H., 1999, “Evolution of Residual Stress State in a Duplex Stainless Steel During Loading,” Acta Mater., 47, pp. 2669–2684.
Horvath,  W., Tabernig,  B., Werner,  E., and Uggowitzer,  P., 1997, “Microstructure and Yield Strength of Nitrogen Alloyed Super Duplex Steels,” Acta Mater., 45, pp. 1645–1654.
Iza-Mendia,  A., Pinol-Juez,  A., Urcola,  J. J., and Guitierrez,  I., 1998, “Microstructural and Mechanical Behavior of a Duplex Stainless Steel under Hot Working Conditions,” Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 29A, pp. 2975–2986.
Cho,  K., and Gurland,  J., 1988, “The Law of Mixtures Applied to the Plastic Deformation of Two-Phase Alloys of Coarse Microstructures,” Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 19A, pp. 2027–2040.
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Fischer,  F. D., Rammerstorfer,  F. G., and Bauer,  F. J., 1990, “Fatigue and Fracture of High-Alloyed Steel Specimens Subjected to Purely Thermal Cycling,” Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 21A, pp. 935–948.
Siegmund,  T., Werner,  E., and Fischer,  F. D., 1993, “The Irreversible Deformation of a Duplex Stainless Steel Under Thermal Loading,” Mater. Sci. Eng., A, A169, pp. 125–133.
Werner,  E., Siegmund,  T., Weinhandl,  H., and Fischer,  F. D., 1994, “Properties of Random Polycrystalline Two-Phase Materials,” Appl. Mech. Rev., 47, pp. S230–S240.
Werner,  E., Siegmund,  T., and Fischer,  F. D., 1994, “A Computer Study on the Thermomechanical Deformation Behavior of a Duplex Steel,” Comput. Mater. Sci., 3, pp. 279–285.
Horvath,  W., Prantl,  W., Werner,  E., and Stüwe,  H. P., 1995, “Influence of Thermal Cycling on the Microstructure of a Stainless Ferritic-Austenitic Duplex Steel,” Mater. Charact., 34, pp. 277–285.
Siegmund,  T., Werner,  E., and Fischer,  F. D., 1995, “On the Thermomechanical Deformation Behavior of Duplex-Type Materials,” J. Mech. Phys. Solids, 43, pp. 495–532.
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Silberschmidt,  V. V., and Werner,  E., 1999, “Analysis of Thermal Residual Stresses in Duplex-Type Materials,” Comput. Mater. Sci., 16, pp. 39–52.
Silberschmidt,  V. V., Rammerstorfer,  F. G., Werner,  E. A., Fischer,  F. D., and Uggowitzer,  P. J., 1999, “On Material Immanent Ratchetting of Two-Phase Materials under Cyclic Purely Thermal Loading,” Arch. Appl. Mech. 69, pp. 727–750.
Dong,  W. P., Sullivan,  P. J., and Stout,  K. J., 1994, “Comprehensive Study of Parameters for Characterising Three-Dimensional Surface Topography III: Parameters for Characterising Spatial and Hybrid Properties,” Wear, 178, pp. 45–60.
Silberschmidt,  V. V., and Werner,  E., 2000, “Computational Analysis of Thermally Loaded Duplex Stainless Steels: The Role of the Free Surfaces and the Microstructure,” Comput. Mater. Sci., 19, pp. 1–12.
Eshelby,  J. D., 1957, “The Determination of the Elastic Field of an Ellipsoidal Inclusion and Related Problems,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A, 241, pp. 376–396.
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Silberschmidt,  V. V., and Werner,  E., 2001, “The Influence of the Microstructure on the Effective Properties of Duplex-Type Materials under Purely Thermal Loading,” Journal de Physique IV ,11, Pr4, pp. 349–356.
Silberschmidt, V. V., and Werner, E., 2001, “Analyses of Thermal Stresses’ Evolution in Ferritic-Austenitic Duplex Steels,” Thermal Stresses 2001, Proceedings of the 4th Int. Congress on Thermal Stresses, Osaka, pp. 327–330.
Silberschmidt,  V. V., Ortmayr,  M., Messner,  C., and Werner,  E. A., 2001, “Local and Global Analysis of Plasticity in Ferritic-Austenitic Duplex Steels,” Journal de Physique IV, 11, Pr5, pp. 293–300.
Horvath,  W., Prantl,  W., Stroißjnigg,  H., and Werner,  E., 1998, “Microhardness and Microstructure of Austenite and Ferrite in Nitrogen Alloyed Duplex Steels between 20 and 500°C,” Mater. Sci. Eng., A, A256, pp. 227–236.
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Liedl, U., Messner, C., and Werner, E. A., 2001, “Simulation of the Ratchetting Behavior of Duplex Steels by Means of Voronoi Tessellation” (unpublished).
Pedersen,  O. B., 1999, “Micromechanisms of Fatigue in High Nitrogen Duplex Steel,” Mater. Sci. Forum, 318–320, pp. 733–742.

Figures

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Instantaneous levels of Young’s moduli and of coefficients of thermal expansion for ferrite (α) and austenite (γ)
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Temperature dependence of yield stresses of ferrite and austenite
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Metallographic sections of duplex steel Z: (a) perpendicular and (b) parallel to the axis of the forged rod. Ferrite is the dark phase.
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Change of the axial length of XA specimen during 5 thermal cycles. Heating/cooling rate 5°C/s.
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Evolution of residual axial strains at thermal cycling in XA and ZA specimens
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Mean residual axial strain increments in XA and ZA specimens at thermal cycling
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Change of surface topography due to cyclic thermal loading. Initially polished surface (a) and surfaces perpendicular (b) and parallel (c) to the axis of forging after 5 cycles at 1°C/s.
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Finite-element discretisation of one octant of cylindrical specimen for a standard three-dimensional-model (characteristic length scale 210 μm; 15600 elements). Ferrite is shown black.
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Finite-element discretisation of one octant of cylindrical specimen with longitudinal phase domains (characteristic length scale 210 μm; 15510 elements)
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Finite-element discretisation of inclusions in one quarter of square and circular transversal cross-sections (characteristic length scale 40 μm; 20000 and 15759 finite elements, respectively)
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Evolution of the equivalent plastic strain at heating from 20°C in different points of ferritic inclusions and of the austenitic matrix (FE-simulations with the characteristic length scale 40 μm)
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Typical distribution of equivalent plastic strain (in percent) in ferritic inclusions after 5 thermal cycles (1/500th part of the quarter of the specimen’s cross-section shown in Fig. 10 is presented)
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FE-prediction for roughness evolution on the specimen’s surface at thermal cycling (austenitic matrix)

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