Surface Modification of Powder Metallurgy Components With a Direct Diode Laser

[+] Author and Article Information
Stuart Barnes, Michael J. Nash, Y. K. Kwok

Warwick Manufacturing Group, School of Engineering, University of Warwick, Coventry, England

J. Eng. Mater. Technol 125(4), 372-377 (Sep 22, 2003) (6 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1605111 History: Received January 10, 2003; Revised June 17, 2003; Online September 22, 2003
Copyright © 2003 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Bocchini,  G. F., 2000, “The New Iron Base Powders for Advanced Automotive PM Applications,” Int. J Mater. and Prod. Technol. 15(3–5), pp. 172–192.
Knowles,  D. M., and Hunt,  D. W., 2002, “The Influence of Microstructure and Environment on the Crack Growth Behavior of Powder Metallurgy Nickel Superalloy RR1000,” Metall. Trans. A, 33(10), pp. 3165–3172.
Azcona,  I., Ordonez,  A., Sanchez,  J. M., and Castro,  F., 2002, “Hot Isostatic Pressing of Ultrafine Tungsten Carbide-Cobalt Hardmetals,” J. Mater. Sci., 37(19), pp. 189–195.
Shimizu,  T., Kitazima,  A., Nose,  M., Fuchizawa,  S., and Sano,  T., 2001, “Production of Large Size Parts by MIM Process,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 119(1–3), pp. 199–202.
ASM Handbook, Powder Metal Technologies and Applications, 7 , ASM International, ISBN: 0-87170-387-4.
Editorial, 1997, “Manufacturing Cell Boosts GKN’s Lichfield Plant,” Metal Powder Report, 52 (9), pp. 30–32.
Bass, M., ed., 1983, Laser Materials Processing, Materials Processing Theory and Practices, 3 , Horth-Holland, Amsterdam.
Metzbower, E., ed., 1979, Applications of Laser Materials Processing, Amer. Soc. for Metals, Metals Park, OH.
Whittaker,  D., 1996, “Choosing the Surface Treatment for PM Parts,” Metal Powder Report, pp. 20–26.
www.aeat.co.uk, AEA Technology website.
Selvan,  J. S., Subramanian,  K., and Nath,  A. K., 1999, “Effect of Laser Surface Hardening on En18 (AISI 5135) Steel,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 91, pp. 29–36.
Ehlers, B., Herfurth, H. J., and Heinemann, S., 2000, “Hardening and Welding With High Power Diode Lasers,” Laser Diodes and LEDs in Industrial, Measurement, Imaging and Sensors Applications II; Testing, Packaging and Reliability of Semiconductor Lasers, Proceedings of SPIE, 3945 , pp. 63–70.
Katsamas,  A. I., and Haidemenopoulos,  G. N., 1999, “Surface Hardening of Low-Alloy 15CrNi6 Steel by CO2 Laser Beam,” Surf. Coat. Technol., 115, pp. 249–255.
Katsamas,  A. I., and Haidemenopoulos,  G. N., 2001, “Laser-Beam Carburisation of Low-Alloy Steels,” Surf. Coat. Technol., 139, pp. 183–191.
Guan,  H. Y., Chen,  L. T., Wang,  G. H., and Zhang,  T. J., 1997, “The Prediction of the Mechanical Properties of Metal During Laser Quenching,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 63(1–3), pp. 614–617.
ASM Handbook, 1998, Heat Treating, 4 , A.S.M. International.
Smallman, R. E., 1970, Modern Physical Metallurgy, Butterworth-Heinemann, ISBN: 040870022X.
Smallman, R. E., and Bishop, R. J., 1999, Modern Physical Metallurgy: Metals and Materials, Butterworth-Heinemann, ISBN: 0750645644.
Wiendahl, H.-P., Fiebig, C., and Hernandez, R., 2002, “The Transformable and Reconfigurable Factory, Methods and Case Study,” Proceedings ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress & Exposition, Nov. 17–22, New Orleans, Louisiana, IMECE2002-32960, ASME, New York, pp. 1–6.


Grahic Jump Location
Component selected for laser processing; a 100 mm diameter ferrous sprocket wheel used in automotive engine applications. Sprocket teeth are induction hardened.
Grahic Jump Location
Laser processing set-up with the laser head positioned above the component which is held in a chuck attached to a CNC controlled X-Y table
Grahic Jump Location
Typical laser processed track produced at 1000 W, sectioned at 90 deg to the track, polished and etched in a 2 percent Nital solution
Grahic Jump Location
Hardness profiles produced at a laser power of 1000 W and indicated processing speeds. It can be seen that the hardness and hardening depth decrease with increasing processing speed and that the induction hardened sample is harder than all laser hardened samples.
Grahic Jump Location
Variation in hardened depth (550 HV) with processing speed at 1200 W showing a consistent decrease in depth of hardening with increasing processing speed
Grahic Jump Location
Variation of maximum surface hardness with processing speed at 1000 W. Hardness is reduced at speeds in excess of 3000 mm/min, but below this speed the trend is a less consistent than that shown in Fig. 5.
Grahic Jump Location
Martensitic microstructure within the laser processed track (top), and parent material (bottom), etched in 2 percent Nital
Grahic Jump Location
SEM images of the surface of (a) untreated material and (b) a laser processed track produced at 1000 W and 1000 mm/min, showing the absence of any melting on the surface; see Figs. 11 and 12 for characteristics of a melted surface.
Grahic Jump Location
Hardness profiles produced at a laser power of 1200 W and the indicated processing speeds. Surface hardness of all profiles is comparable with induction hardening although hardening depth decreases with increasing processing speed.
Grahic Jump Location
Variation in hardened depth (550 HV) with processing speed at 1200 W showing a consistent decrease in hardness depth with increasing processing speed
Grahic Jump Location
SEM images of the surface a laser processed track produced at 1200 W and 1000 mm/min, showing a smooth surface resulting from limited melting, bottom right compared to the un-melted, as-received PM surface top left
Grahic Jump Location
SEM images of the surface a laser processed track produced at 1200 W and 600 mm/min, showing a “weld-like” surface resulting from significant melting, top right and an as-received PM surface bottom left




Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In