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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Spatially Averaged Local Strains in Textile Composites Via the Binary Model Formulation

[+] Author and Article Information
Qingda Yang, Brian Cox

Rockwell Scientific, 1049 Camino Dos Rios, Thousand Oaks, CA 91360

J. Eng. Mater. Technol 125(4), 418-425 (Sep 22, 2003) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1605117 History: Received January 10, 2003; Revised March 05, 2003; Online September 22, 2003
Copyright © 2003 by ASME
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References

Cox,  B. N., Carter,  W. C., and Fleck,  N. A., 1994, “A Binary Model of Textile Composites: I Formulation,” Acta Metall. Mater., 42, pp. 3463–3479.
Xu,  J., Cox,  B. N., McGlockton,  M. A., and Carter,  W. C., 1995, “A Binary Model of Textile Composites: II Elastic Regime,” Acta Metall. Mater., 43, pp. 3511–3524.
Cox, B. N., McMeeking, R. M., and McGlockton, M. A., 1999, “The Binary Model—A Computational Approach to Textile Composites,” Proc. ICCM12, Paris, July, 1999, T. Massard, ed., Woodhead Publishing Limited, Melbourne.
McGlockton,  M. A., Cox,  B. N., and McMeeking,  R. M., 2003, “A Binary Model of Textile Composites: III High Failure Strain and Work of Fracture in 3D Weaves,” J. Mech. Phys. Solids, 51, pp. 1573–1600.
Cox, B. N., and McMeeking, R. M., 2002, “The Binary Model—User’s Guide,” edition 2.1, Rockwell Scientific internal report, Thousand Oaks, CA.
Yang, Q. D., Rugg, K. L., Cox, B. N., and Marshall, D. B., 2003, “Validated Predictions of the Local Variations of Strain in a 3D C/SiC Weave,” submitted to J. Am. Ceram. Soc.
Sihn, S., Iarve, E. V., and Roy, A. K., 2003, “Three-Dimensional Stress Analysis of Textile Woven Composites: Part I. Numerical Analysis” and “Three-Dimensional Stress Analysis of Textile Woven Composites: Part II. Asymptotic Analysis,” submitted to Int. J. Solids Struct..
Cox,  B. N., Dadkhah,  M. S., Morris,  W. L., and Flintoff,  J. G., 1994, “Failure Mechanisms of 3D Woven Composites in Tension, Compression, and Bending,” Acta Metall. Mater., 42, pp. 3967–3984.
Cox, B. N., 2002, “Using Materials Data to Predict Failure in Textile Composite Structures,” Rockwell Scientific internal report to the Boeing Airplane Company Edition 2.1, Thousand Oaks, California; Cox, B. N. and Yang, Q.-D., “Failure Prediction for Textile Composites, via Micromechanics,” in Proc. Symp. on Durability and Damge Tolerance of Heterogeneous Material Systems, ASME IMECE, Washington, D.C., November, 2003.
Ho,  S., and Suo,  Z., 1993, “Tunneling Cracks in Constrained Layers,” ASME J. Appl. Mech., 60, pp. 890–894.
Argon, A. S., 1992, Fracture of Composites, Treatise of Materials Sciences and Technology, 1 , Academic Press, New York.
Budiansky,  B., and Fleck,  N. A., 1993, “Compressive Failure of Fibre Composites,” J. Mech. Phys. Solids, 41, pp. 183–211.
Fleck,  N. A., and Shu,  J. Y., 1995, “Microbuckle Initiation in Fibre Composites: A Finite Element Study,” J. Mech. Phys. Solids, 43, pp. 1887–1918.
Clarke,  J. D., and McGregor,  I. J., 1993, “Ultimate Tensile Criterion over a Zone: A New Failure Criterion for Adhesive Joints,” J. Adhes., 42, pp. 227–245.
Sheppard,  A. , and Kelly,  D., and Tong,  L., 1998, “A Damage Zone Model for the Failure Analysis of Adhesively Bonded Joints,” Int. J. Adhesion & Adhesives, 18, pp. 385–400.
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Zhou,  S. J., and Curtin,  W. A., 1995, “Failure of Fiber Composites: A Lattice Green Function Model,” Acta Metall. Mater., 43, pp. 3093–3104.
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Dadkhah,  M. S., Flintoff,  J. G., Kniveton,  T., and Cox,  B. N., 1995, “Simple Models for Triaxially Braided Composites,” Composites, 26, pp. 91–102.
Bogdanovich, A., and Mungalov, D., 2002, “Innovative 3-D Braiding Process and Automated Machine for Its Industrial Realization,” Proc. 23rd Int. SAMPE Conf., Paris, pp. 529–540.
Yang,  Q. D., Rugg,  K. L., Cox,  B. N., and Shaw,  M. C., 2003, “Failure in the Junction Region of T-Stiffeners: 3D-Braided vs. 2D-Laminate Stiffeners,” Int. J. Solids Struct., 4(7), pp. 1653–1668.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Thermal residual strains predicted in the three-dimensional-braided T-stiffener of Fig. 4. The maximum principal strain is shown. The magnitudes of the strains are those expected for representative material and temperature parameters.
Grahic Jump Location
(a) The minimum principal strain (i.e., maximum compressive strain) in a three-dimensional-braided T-stiffener in cantilever loading. (b) Variation of the spatially-averaged maximum compressive strain (minimum principal strain, ε1) and maximum shear strain, γmax, along fiber Tow 1 (Fig. 4(b)) as a function of distance from the built-in end. Strains normalized by the local values predicted for a homogeneous material.
Grahic Jump Location
Schematic of the model composite, containing a single tow crossover (not to scale)
Grahic Jump Location
Different meshes used for the Binary Model approximation of the cell. Diagonal lines trace tow elements. Square lines on the near faces trace effective medium elements: (a) 1 string per tow; and (b) 4 strings per tow.
Grahic Jump Location
Three strain components as predicted by the Binary-Model and after spatial averaging using various averaging volumes. Calculations made using the meshes shown in Fig. 2: (a) 16 EM elements and 1 string/tow; (b) 16 EM elements and 4 strings/tow; (c) 64 EM elements and 1 string/tow; and (d) 64 EM elements and 4 strings/tow.
Grahic Jump Location
(a) Architecture of a three-dimensional-braided T-stiffener (drawings courtesy Dr. Dmitri Mungalov, 3Tex Inc.). (b) Fiber tow arrangement in the web showing two different types of tow cross-over configurations.

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