Thermo-Mechanical Modeling of Hot Forging Process

[+] Author and Article Information
Siamak Serajzadeh

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11365-9466, Azadi Ave., Tehran, Iran

J. Eng. Mater. Technol 126(4), 406-412 (Nov 09, 2004) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1631029 History: Received November 22, 2002; Revised May 05, 2003; Online November 09, 2004
Copyright © 2004 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Chakrabarty, J., 1987, Theory of Plasticity, New York, McGraw-Hill.
Oh,  S. I., 1982, “Finite Element Analysis of Metal Forming Processes With Arbitrarily Shaped Dies,” Int. J. Mech. Sci., 24, p. 479.
Dadras,  P., and Wells,  W. R., 1984, “Heat Transfer Aspect of Nonisothermal Axisymmetric Upset Forging,” ASME J. Eng. Ind., 106, p. 187.
Dadras,  P., and Burte,  P. R., 1986, “Nonisothermal Axisymmetric Forging,” ASME J. Eng. Ind., 108, p. 288.
Kim,  Y. J., and Yang,  D. Y., 1985, “A Formulation for Rigid-Plastic Finite Element Method Considering Work-Hardening Effect,” Int. J. Mech. Sci., 27, pp. 487–495.
Diko,  F., and Hashmi,  M. S. J., 1993, “A Finite Element Simulation of Non-Steady State Forming Processes,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 38, pp. 115–122.
Gelin,  J. C., and Nguegang,  B. V., 1996, “Modelling of the Thermo-Mechanical Coupling During Hot Forming of Viscoplastic Materials,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 60, pp. 441–446.
Park,  J. M., Kim,  Y. H., and Bae,  W. B., 1997, “An Upper Bound Analysis of Metal Forming Processes by Nodal Velocity Fields Using a Shape Function,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 71, pp. 94–101.
Bini,  M., Cabrera,  J. M., and Prado,  J. M., 1998, “Modelling the Hot Working of Simple Geometries Employing Physical-Based Constitutive Equations and the Finite Element Method,” Mater. Forum, 284–286, pp. 369–376.
Jang,  Y., Ko,  D., and Kim,  B., 2000, “Application of the Finite Element Method to Predict Microstructure Evolution in the Hot Forging of Steel,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 101, pp. 85–94.
Lee,  R., Chen,  T., and Pan,  M., 1996, “Evaluation of the Preform of a Stepped Forging Part by Coupled Thermo-Viscoplastic Finite Element Analysis and Visoplasticity,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 57, pp. 278–287.
Lu,  X., and Balendra,  R., 1996, “Evaluation of FE Models for the Calculation of Die Cavity Compensation,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 58, pp. 212–216.
Sellars,  C. M., and Whiteman,  J. A., 1979, “Recrystallization and Grain Growth in Hot Rolling,” Met. Sci., 13, pp. 187–194.
Bergstrom,  Y., 1969, “A Dislocation Model for Stress-Strain Behavior of Polycrystalline α-Fe With Especial Emphasis the Variation of the Densities of Mobile and Immobile Dislocations,” Mater. Sci. Eng., 5, pp. 193–200.
Serajzadeh,  S., and Karimi Taheri,  A., 2003, “Prediction of Flow Stress at Hot Working Condition,” Mech. Res. Commun., 30, pp. 87–93.
Carslaw, H. S., and Jaeger, J. C., 1959, Conduction of Heat in Solids, Oxford, Oxford University Press.
Semiatin,  S. L., Collings,  E. W., Wood,  V. E., and Altan,  T., 1987, “Determination of the Interface Heat Transfer Coefficient for Non-Isothermal Bulk-Forming Processes,” ASME J. Eng. Ind., 109, pp. 49–57.
Kobayashi, S., Oh, S. I., and Altan, T., 1988, Metal Forming and Finite Element Method, Oxford, Oxford University Press.
Anderson,  J. G., and Evans,  R. W., 1996, “Modelling Flow Stress Evaluation During Elevated Temperature Deformation of Two Low Carbon Steels,” Ironmaking Steelmaking, 23, pp. 130–135.
Serajzadeh,  S., 2003, “Development of Constitutive Equations for a High Carbon Steel Using Additivity Rule,” ISIJ Int., 43, pp. 1057–1062.
Colas,  R., 1996, “A Model for the Hot Deformation of Low-Carbon Steel,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 62, pp. 180–185.
Lusk,  M., and Jou,  H. J., 1997, “On the Rule of Additivity in Phase Transformation Kinetics,” Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 28, pp. 287–291.
Medina,  S. F., and Mancila,  J. E., 1993, “Determination of Static Recrystallization Critical Temperature of Austenite in Micro-Alloyed Steels,” ISIJ Int., 33, pp. 1257–1264.
Sellers,  C. M., 1985, “The Kinetics of Softening Processes During Hot Working of Austenite,” Czech. J. Phys., B35, pp. 239–248.
Darken, L. S., and Gurry, R. W., 1953, Physical Chemistry of Metals, McGraw-Hill, New York, p. 415.
Morales,  R. D., Lopez,  A. G., and Oliveres,  I. M., 1991, “Heat Transfer Analysis During Water Spray Cooling of Steel Rods,” ISIJ Int., 30, pp. 48–57.
Hodgson,  P. D., and Gibbs,  R. K., 1992, “A Mathematical Model to Predict the Mechanical Properties of Hot Rolled C-Mn and Microalloyed Steels,” ISIJ Int., 32, pp. 1329–1338.
Serajzadeh,  S., and Karimi Taheri,  A., 2002, “An Investigation of the Silicon Role on Austenite Recrystallization,” Mater. Lett., 6, pp. 984–989.
Umemoto,  M., Ohtsuka,  H., and Tamura,  I., 1983, “Transformation to Pearlite From Work-Hardened Austenite,” Trans. Iron Steel Inst. Jpn., 23, pp. 775–784.


Grahic Jump Location
True stress-strain curves obtained from (a) single stage experiments, (b) double stage experiments
Grahic Jump Location
Calculated and experimental stress-strain curves under isothermal and constant strain rates conditions for the low carbon steel
Grahic Jump Location
Calculated and experimental stress-strain curves under isothermal and constant strain rates conditions for the high silicon steel
Grahic Jump Location
Theoretical and experimental load-stroke results achieved under nonisothermal condition
Grahic Jump Location
High silicon steel austenite grain size after hot forging at 950°C and strain rate of 0.5 s−1 (a) true strain of 0.4, (b) true strain of 0.65
Grahic Jump Location
Predicted austenite grain size during and after hot nonisothermal forging for the high silicon steel
Grahic Jump Location
Progress of phase transformations for high silicon steel predicted by the model (a) dynamic recovery, (b) dynamic recrystallization, (c) static recrystallization
Grahic Jump Location
Effect of forging condition on temperature and strain heterogeneity during hot nonisothermal forging (sticking friction factor=0.5, reduction=32%) (a) ram velocity of 1 s/mm, (b) ram velocity of 40 s/mm
Grahic Jump Location
Effect of interface heat transfer coefficient on the shape of the final product in the process of hot nonisothermal forging (ram velocity=10 mm/s, sticking friction factor=0.4, reduction=40%) (a) interface heat transfer coefficient of 1500 w/m2 °C, (b) interface heat transfer coefficient of 8500 w/m2 °C
Grahic Jump Location
Effect of chemical composition on the developed strain field during the hot upset forging (ram velocity=10 mm/s, sticking friction factor=0.4, reduction=40%, and interface heat transfer coefficient=6000 w/m2 °C) (a) high silicon steel, (b) low carbon steel
Grahic Jump Location
Comparison between the predicted kinetics of dynamic phase transformations under nonisothermal upset forging for the two kinds of steel (a) dynamic recovery (b) dynamic recrystallization



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In