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RESEARCH PAPERS

Formation of Microscopic Voids in Resin Transfer Molded Composites

[+] Author and Article Information
Youssef K. Hamidi, Levent Aktas, M. Cengiz Altan

School of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019

J. Eng. Mater. Technol 126(4), 420-426 (Nov 09, 2004) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1789958 History: Received July 25, 2003; Revised February 15, 2004; Online November 09, 2004
Copyright © 2004 by ASME
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References

Abraham,  D., Matthews,  S., and Mcllhagger,  R., 1998, “A Comparison of Physical Properties of Glass Fiber Epoxy Composites Produced by Wet Lay-up With Autoclave Consolidation and Resin Transfer Moulding,” Composites, Part A, 29A, pp. 795–801.
Judd,  N. C. W., and Wright,  W. W., 1978, “Voids and Their Effects on the Mechanical Properties of Composites an Appraisal,” SAMPE Q., 14, pp. 10–14.
Goodwin, A. A., Howe, C. A., and Paton, R. J., 1997, “The Role of Voids in Reducing the Interlaminar Shear Strength in RTM Laminates,” Proceedings of ICCM-11, edited by M. L. Scott, Australian Composite Structures Society, Vol. IV, pp. 11–19.
Harper,  B. D., Staab,  G. H., and Chen,  R. S., 1987, “A Note on the Effect of Voids Upon the Hygral and Mechanical Properties of AS4/3502 Graphite/Epoxy,” J. Compos. Mater., 21, pp. 280–289.
Patel,  N., and Lee,  L. J., 1995, “Effect of Fiber Mat Architecture on Void Formation and Removal in Liquid Composite Molding,” Polym. Compos., 16, pp. 386–399.
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Patel,  N., Rohatgi,  V., and Lee,  J. L., 1995, “Micro Scale Flow Behavior and Void Formation Mechanism During Impregnation Through a Unidirectional Stitched Fiberglass Mat,” Polym. Eng. Sci., 35, pp. 837–851.
Rohatgi,  V., Patel,  N., and Lee,  J. L., 1996, “Experimental Investigation of Flow Induced Micro-Voids During Impregnation of Unidirectional Stitched Fiberglass Mat,” Polym. Compos., 17, pp. 161–170.
Stabler,  W. R., Tatterson,  G. B., Sadler,  R. L., and El-Shiekh,  A. H. M., 1992, “Void Minimization in the Manufacture of Carbon Fiber Composites by Resin Transfer Molding,” SAMPE Q., 23 January, pp. 38–42.
Chan,  A. W., and Morgan,  R. J., 1992, “Modeling Preform Impregnation and Void Formation in Resin Transfer Molding of Unidirectional Composites,” SAMPE Q., 23 April, pp. 48–52.
Chui, W. K., Glimm, J., Tangerman, F. M., Jardine, A. P., Madsen, J. S., Donnellan, T. M., and Leek, R., 1995, “Porosity Migration in RTM,” in Proceedings of the 9th International Conference of Numerical Methods in Thermal Problems, pp. 1323–1334.
Lundström,  T. S., 1997, “Measurement of Void Collapse During Resin Transfer Moulding,” Composites, Part A, 28A, pp. 201–214.
Patel,  N., and Lee,  J. L., 1996, “Modeling of Void Formation and Removal in Liquid Composite Molding. Part I: Wettability Analysis,” Polym. Compos., 17, pp. 96–103.
Patel,  N., and Lee,  J. L., 1996, “Modeling of Void Formation and Removal in Liquid Composite Molding. Part II: Model Development and Implementation,” Polym. Compos., 17, pp. 104–114.
Binetruy,  C., Hilaire,  B., and Pabiot,  J., 1998, “Tow Impregnation Model and Void Formation Mechanisms During RTM,” J. Compos. Mater., 32, pp. 223–245.
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Barraza,  H. J., Hamidi,  Y. K., Aktas,  L., O’Rear,  E. A., and Altan,  M. C., 2004, “Porosity Reduction in the High-Speed Processing of Glass Fiber Composites by Resin Transfer Molding (RTM),” J. Compos. Mater. 38, pp. 195–226.
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Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Experimental molding apparatus used to fabricate composite disks
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Representative microscopic images obtained at 200× magnifications depicting examples of voids from different zones: (a) typical composite cross section with different fiber orientations; (b) two matrix voids; (c) five preform voids; (d) one transition void
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Void content contributions of different locations (void zones) within the composite disk
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Variation in void content through-the-thickness of the composite disk
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Void size distributions based on equivalent diameter at the surface (next to mold walls) and inner layers
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Representative microscopic images obtained at 200× magnifications depicting voids with different sizes: (a) example of a large void adjacent to a fiber bundle; (b) two small and a barely medium void (from top to bottom); (c) a medium void; (d) voids from different size categories
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Size distributions of voids from different locations (void zones) within the composite disk
Grahic Jump Location
Void content contributions of voids with different shapes
Grahic Jump Location
Size distribution of voids with different shapes

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