0
RESEARCH PAPERS

Effect of Geometry and Materials on Residual Stress Measurement in Thin Films by Using the Focused Ion Beam

[+] Author and Article Information
Ki-Ju Kang

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chonnam National University, Kwangju, 500-757, Koreae-mail: kjkang@chonnam.ac.kr

Severine Darzens

Princeton Materials Institute, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08540

Gee-Seob Choi

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chonnam National University, Kwangju, 500-757, Korea

J. Eng. Mater. Technol 126(4), 457-464 (Nov 09, 2004) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1789965 History: Received October 21, 2003; Revised April 26, 2004; Online November 09, 2004
Copyright © 2004 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Masubuchi, K., 1980, Analysis of Welded Structures, Pergamon, New York.
Cheng,  W., and Finnie,  I., 1990, “The Crack Compliance Method for Residual Stress Measurement,” Weld. World, 28, pp. 103–110.
Cheng, W., and Finnie, I., 1991, “An Experimental Method for Determining Residual Stresses in Welds,” Modeling of Casting, Welding and Advanced Solidfication Processes—V, The Minerals Metals and Materials Soc., pp. 337–342.
Cheng,  W., and Finnie,  I., 1993, “Measurement of Residual Stresses Distributions Near the Toe of an Attachment Welded on a Plate Using the Crack Compliance Method,” Eng. Fract. Mech., 46, pp. 79–92.
Cheng, W., Finnie, I., and Prime, M. B., 1992, “Measurement of Residual Stresses Through the Thickness of a Strip Using the Crack-Compliance Method,” Residual Stresses—III Science and Technology, edited by H. Fujiwara, T. Abe, and K. Tanaka, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2 , pp. 1127–1132.
Cheng, W., and Finnie, I., 1994, “An Overview of the Compliance Method for Residual Stress Measurement,” Proc. Fourth Int. Conf. Residual Stress, Baltimore MD, Soc. for Exp. Mech., pp. 449–458.
Kang,  K. J., Song,  J. H., and Earmme,  Y. Y., 1989, “A Method for the Measurement of Residual Stresses Using a Fracture Mechanics Approach,” J. Strain Anal. Eng. Des., 24, pp. 23–30.
Kang,  K. J., and Choi,  S. R., 1993, “Residual Stress Measurement for Circular Disk Using Fracture Mechanics Approach,” Trans. Korean Soc. Mech. Eng.,17, pp. 1218–1226 (in Korean).
Kang,  K. J., and Seol,  S. Y., 1996, “Measurement of Residual Stresses in a Circular Ring Using the Successive Cracking Method,” ASME Trans. J. Eng. Mater. Technol.,118, pp. 217–223.
Prime,  M. B., 1999, “Residual Stress Measurement by Successive Extension of a Slot: The Crack Compliance Method,” Appl. Mech. Rev., 52, pp. 75–96.
Kang,  K. J., Yao,  N., He,  M. Y., and Evans,  A. G., 2003, “A Method for In-Situ Measurement of the Residual Stress in Thin Films by Using the Focused Ion Beam,” Thin Solid Films, 443, pp. 71–77.
Noyan, I. C., and Cohen, J. B., 1987, Residual Stress Measurement by Diffraction and Interpretation, Springer, Berlin, pp. 166–181.
Vosberg,  V. R., Clemens,  D., Berger,  M. G., Fisher,  W., and Nickel,  H., 1997, “Stress in Alumina Scales on High-Temperature Alloys Measured by X-ray and Optical Methods,” Fresenius' J. Anal. Chem., 358, pp. 127–130.
Lipkin,  D. M., and Clarke,  D. R., 1996, “Measurement of the Stress in Oxide Scales Formed by Oxidation of Aluminum-Containing Alloys,” Oxid. Met., 45, pp. 267–280.
Ma,  Q., and Clarke,  D. R., 1993, “Optical Fluorescence From Chromium Ions in Sapphire: A Probe of the Image Stress,” Acta Metall. Mater., 41, pp. 1811–1816.
Cho,  S. J., Lee,  K. R., Eun,  K. Y., Hahn,  J. H., and Ko,  D. H., 1999, “Determination of Elastic Modulus and Poisson’s Ratio of Diamond-Like Carbon Films,” Thin Solid Films, 341, pp. 207–210.
Witvrouw,  A., and Spaepen,  F., 1993, “Determination of the Plane Stress Elastic Constants of Thin Films From Substrate Curvature Measurements: Applications to Amorphous Metals,” J. Appl. Phys., 73, pp. 7344–7350.
Tsui,  T. T., Oliver,  W. C., and Pharr,  G. M., 1996, “Influences of Stress on the Measurement of Mechanical Properties Using Nanoindentation: Part I. Experimental Studies in an Aluminum Alloy,” J. Mater. Res., 11, pp. 752–759.
Suresh,  S., and Gianakopoulos,  A. E., 1998, “A New Method of Estimating Residual Stress by Instrumented Sharf Indentation,” Acta Mater., 46, pp. 5755–5767.
Lee,  Y. H., and Kwon,  D., 2002, “Residual Stresses in DLC/Si and Au/Si Systems: Application of a Stress Relaxation Model to the Nanoindentation Technique,” J. Mater. Res., 17, pp. 901–906.
Zhang,  T. Y., Su,  Y. J., Qian,  C. F., Zhao,  M. H., and Chen,  L. Q., 2000, “Microbridge Testing of Silicon Oxide/Silicon Nitride Bilayer Films Deposited on Silicon Wafers,” Acta Mater., 48, pp. 4901–4915.
Denhoff,  M. W., 2003, “A Measurement of Young’s Modulus and Residual Stress in MEMS Bridges Using a Surface Profiler,” J. Micromech. Microeng., 13, pp. 686–692.
Kim, J. H., Kim, J. G., Hahn, J. H., Lee, H. Y., and Kim, Y. H., 2003, “Nano-Bending Method to Identify the Residual Stresses of MEMS Films,” NANOTECH 2003, San Francisco, CA, 23–27 Feb., pp. 468–473.
Sutton,  M. A., Cheng,  M., Peters,  W. H., Chaou,  Y. J., and McNeill,  S. R., 1986, “Application of an Optimized Digital Correlation Method to Planar Deformation Analysis,” Image Vis. Comput., 4, pp. 143–151.
Schreier,  H. W., Braasch,  J. R., and Sutton,  M. A., 2000, “Systematic Errors in Digital Image Correlation Caused by Gray-Value Interpolation,” Opt. Eng. (Bellingham), 39, pp. 2915–2921.
Hutchinson,  J. W., and Suo,  Z., 1992, “Mixed Mode Cracking in Layered Materials,” Adv. Appl. Mech., 29, pp. 63–191.
Moon,  M. W., Jensen,  H. M., Hutchinson,  J. W., Oh,  K. H., and Evans,  A. G., 2002, “The Characterization of Telephone Cord Buckling of Compressed Thin Films on Substrates,” J. Mech. Phys. Solids, 50, pp. 2355–2377.
Jensen,  H. M., and Thouless,  M. D., 1995, “Buckling Instability of Straight Edge Cracks,” J. Appl. Mech., 62, pp. 620–625.
Hutchinson,  J. W., 2001, “Delamination of Compressed Films on Curved Substrates,” J. Mech. Phys. Solids, 49, pp. 1847–1864.
Moon,  M. W., Chung,  J. W., Lee,  K. R., Oh,  K. H., Wang,  R., and Evans,  A. G., 2002, “An Experimental Study of the Influence of Imperfections on the Buckling of Compressed Thin Films,” Acta Mater., 50, pp. 1219–1227.
Cho,  S. J., Lee,  K. R., Eun,  K. Y., Hahn,  J. H., and Ko,  D. H., 1999, “Determination of Elastic Modulus and Poisson’s Ratio of Diamond-Like Carbon Films,” Thin Solid Films, 341, pp. 207–210.
Tolpygo,  V. K., Dryden,  J. R., and Clarke,  D. R., 1998, “Determination of the Growth Stress and Strain in α-Al2O3 Scales During the Oxidation of Fe-22Cr-4.8Al-0.3Y Alloy,” Acta Mater., 46, pp. 927–937.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
A schematic of a focused ion beam slot introduced into a film, defining the coordinates
Grahic Jump Location
Close-up of a finite element model simulating the slot introduced into the film
Grahic Jump Location
Comparisons of the displacements in the presence of a uniform compression in a thin film estimated by an analytic solution Eq. (2) for a two-dimensional crack, with the displacements by finite element analyses for two-dimensional slots having various widths
Grahic Jump Location
Displacements in the presence of a uniform compression in a thin film at various distances from the slot end, in comparison with the displacements along the center line (y=0). The inset represents the configuration of the slot.
Grahic Jump Location
Comparison of the displacements in the presence of a uniform compression in a thin film due to introducing a two-dimensional slot, with the ones due to introducing three-dimensional slots with various lengths. The inset indicates a close-up near the slot edge.
Grahic Jump Location
The coefficient λ of Eq. (2) as a function of Dunder’s parameters α and β (see Ref. 23)
Grahic Jump Location
Displacements determined for various slot depths using the analytic solution Eq. (2), with (α,β) being the Dundurs’ elastic misfit parameters, (a) a/h=0.3, (b) a/h=0.5, (c) a/h=0.7, (d) a/h=0.9
Grahic Jump Location
Scanning electron images of a region of the DLC film before and after the introduction of the FIB slot
Grahic Jump Location
Displacement distribution measured from SEM images of the DLC film for one of the slots by using the DIC software (a) left side, (b) right side
Grahic Jump Location
Comparisons of the measured displacements from Fig. 9 (ordinate), with the displacement obtained by using the analytic solution Eq. (2) (abscissa) for an assumed residual stress of −1 GPa. The slope gives the actual residual stress in GPa (as shown). The results derived from the displacements measured on the left and right sides of the slot are in close agreement with each other.
Grahic Jump Location
Scanning electron images of a region of the TGO film before and after the introduction of the FIB slot
Grahic Jump Location
Displacement distribution measured from SEM images of the TGO film for one of the slots by using the DIC software (a) left side, (b) right side
Grahic Jump Location
Comparisons of the measured displacements from Fig. 12 (ordinate), with the displacement obtained by using the analytic solution Eq. (2) (abscissa) for an assumed residual stress of −1 GPa. The slope gives the actual residual stress in GPa (as shown). The results derived from the displacements measured on the left and right sides of the slot are in close agreement with each other.

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In