Microstructural Characterization of Ultrasonically Welded Aluminum

[+] Author and Article Information
S. M. Allameh

Department of Technology, Northern Kentucky University, Highland Heights, KY 41076

C. Mercer

Materials Department, University of California at Santa Barbara

D. Popoola

Zimmer, Inc., Warsaw, IN 46581

W. O. Soboyejo

Princeton Materials Institute and The Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544

J. Eng. Mater. Technol 127(1), 65-74 (Feb 22, 2005) (10 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1836792 History: Received January 01, 2003; Revised September 14, 2004; Online February 22, 2005
Copyright © 2005 by ASME
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Second phase particles imaged in (a) bright field and (b) dark field modes obtained from a diffracted spot of the diffraction pattern of one of the particles
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Moiré fringes revealing slight misorientation of cells and lattice distortion at the cell boundaries. Bending of fringes is marked by arrow 1 at the cell boundaries. Misorientation of cells is marked by arrow 2 where 5 fringes converge.
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Second phase small particles in the BF image taken from the lower section of the TEM slice
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Lap shear stress versus strain obtained from the tensile testing of welded strips with dimension of 1 mm×24.5 mm and a gage length of estimated 20 mm: Type
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Measured lap shear strengths and characterized stress-life behavior: Type A weld (red solid circles and red curve) and Type B weld (Blue empty squares and blue curve)
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SEM images of fracture surfaces of ultrasonically welded Al strips (a) Type A loaded in tensile mode, (b) Type A fatigue loaded, Type B tensile loaded, and (d) Type B fatigue loaded
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Fracture modes of welded strips (a) Fatigue loading of Type A (Ds=0.5 sUTS, (b) Fatigue loading of Type A at Ds=0.65 sUTS, (c) Tensile loading of Type A, (d) Fatigue loading of Type B (Ds=0.5 sUTS), (e) Fatigue loading of Type B (Ds=0.65 sUTS)
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BF image of a triple joint with local lattice distortion at one of the boundaries. Fringes with 3 nm spacing is shown in the left most inset along with the distorted lattice region in the middle inset. The diffraction pattern of the main grain shown in the top right belongs to a 111 zone. The bottom left arch below the triple joint is the edge of a hole in the carbon film.
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BF image of the TEM slice with a SADP from the highlighted selected area designated by SA
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Low magnification image of the TEM slice revealing grains that are of nearly nano-meter scale
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Aluminum grains ion-milled bo focused gallium ion beam revealing dimension of the grains. The differently oriented grains milled with different rates leading to the evolution of the observed morphology
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The morphology of the weld zone is periodic and scales with the magnitude of local stresses that vary, in turn, with the spacing of the grooves on the grips. The impression of the ridges of the grips is shown as grooves in the aluminum sample into grooves of the grips.
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A piece of the painting by Van Goph titled “Starry Night” that shows wavy streams of particles or strips intertwined or sprialling. This pattern called Van Goph Sky (VGS) is observed in hot extrusions where macrosegregation is associated with material flow.
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Optical micrograph of the welded interface with magnified portions (a) unwelded part of the interface, (b) weld zone with embedded unwelded piece of interface, (c) weld spiral, (d) evidence of extrusion, and (e) location of TEM slice




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