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RESEARCH PAPERS

A Study of Creep in Polysilicon MEMS Devices

[+] Author and Article Information
K. Tuck, A. Jungen, A. Geisberger, M. Ellis, G. Skidmore

Zyvex Corporation, 1321 North Plano Road, Richardson, Texas 75081

J. Eng. Mater. Technol 127(1), 90-96 (Feb 22, 2005) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1839214 History: Received January 27, 2004; Revised June 23, 2004; Online February 22, 2005
Copyright © 2005 by ASME
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References

Ballarini, R., Kahn, H., Tayebi, N., and Heuer, A. H., 2001, “Effects of Microstructure on the Strength and Fracture Toughness of Polysilicon: A Wafer Level Testing Approach,” Mechanical Properties of Structural Films, ASTM STP 1413, C. L. Muhlstein and S. B. Brown, eds., ASTM, West Conshohocken, PA, online, available: www.astm.org/STP/1413/1413_13, 15 June 2001.
Callister, J. W. D., 1994, Material Science and Engineering, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York.
Comtois,  J., and Bright,  V., 1997, “Applications for Surface-Micromachined Polysilicon Thermal Actuators and Arrays,” Sens. Actuators, A, 57, pp. 19–25.
Sharpe,  W. N., Bagdahn,  J., Jackson,  K., and Coles,  G., 2003, “Tensile Testing of MEMS Materials—Recent Progress,” J. Mater. Sci., 38, pp. 4075–4079.
LaVan, D. A., Tsuchiya, T., Coles, G., Knauss, W. G., Chasiotis, I., and Read, D., 2001, “Cross Comparison of Strength Testing Techniques on Polysilicon Films,” ASTM STP 1413, C. Muhlstein and S. B. Brown, eds., American Society for Testing and Materials, West Conshohocken, PA, online, available www.astm.org/STP/1413/1413_06, 10 April, 2001.
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Allameh, S. M., 2003, “An Introduction to Mechanical-Properties-Related Issues in MEMS Structures,” Mechanical Properties of MEMS Structures. Journal of Materials Science 38 , pp. 4115–4123, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The Princeton Matterials Institute Princeton, NJ 08544, USA.
Haque, M. A., and Saif, M. T. A., 2003, “A Review of MEMS-Based Microscale and Nanoscale Tensile and Bending Testing,” Society for Experimental Mechanics. Vol. 43, No. 3, September 2003, pp. 248–255.
Espinosa,  H. D., Prorok,  B. C., and Fisher,  M., 2003, “A Methodology for Determining Mechanical Properties of Freestanding Then Films and MEMS Materials,” J. Mech. Phys. Solids, 51, pp. 47–67.
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Koester, D., Mahadevan, R., Hardy, B., and Markus, K., MUMPs Design Handbook, Cronos Integrated Microsystems, Morrisville, NC, 2000.
Yu,  C. L., Flinn,  P. A., Lee,  S. H., and Bravman,  J. C., 1997, “Stress and Microstructural Evolution of LPCVD Polysilicon Thin Films During High Temperature Annealing,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc., 441, pp. 403–408.
Geisberger,  A., Sarkar,  N., Ellis,  M., and Skidmore,  G., 2003, “Electrothermal Properties and Modeling of Polysilicon Microthermal Actuators,” J. Microelectromech. Syst., 12, pp. 513–523.
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Figures

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U-beam thermal actuator simulation results compared with measured data for (top) static displacement versus power; and (bottom) transient displacement for a 10%, 20%, and 30% duty cycle 7 V pulse at 1 KHz
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Polysilicon micro test device used to study creep behavior at high temperatures
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SEM image of the region of interest subject to high temperatures and stresses
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SEM image of polysilicon springs which apply continuous force
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A typical creep curve illustrating three stages of creep in polysilicon
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General Ashby map relating mechanisms of deformation 16
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Measured elongation within test beams (3 stress levels, ∼1300 K) for one minute
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Measured elongation within test beams (3 stress levels ∼1300 K) until failure
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Images showing the beams experiencing plastic deformation in the ROI (notch 1, 2, 3)
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Measured elongation (4 temperatures, stress ∼89 MPa) for one minute
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SEM image of ROI illustrating the grain size difference from the central region to one end
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SEM image of beams after failure to conduct due to dopant migration or oxidation
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SEM image of two beams having undergone mechanical failure, illustrating ductile separation

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