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RESEARCH PAPERS

The Effect of Tool–Sheet Interaction on Damage Evolution in Electromagnetic Forming of Aluminum Alloy Sheet

[+] Author and Article Information
J. M. Imbert, S. L. Winkler, M. J. Worswick, D. A. Oliveira

Dept. of Mech. Engineering, University of Waterloo, 200 University Av. W, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1, Canada

S. Golovashchenko

Ford Motor Company, Scientific Research Laboratory, 2101 Village Rd, Dearborn, MI, 48124

J. Eng. Mater. Technol 127(1), 145-153 (Feb 22, 2005) (9 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1839212 History: Received December 20, 2003; Revised June 25, 2004; Online February 22, 2005
Copyright © 2005 by ASME
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References

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Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Optical micrograph of safe free formed specimen (5.8 kV) at the maximum strain area. Damage is far less severe than that observed in the necked sample. Some evidence of void nucleation due to debonding and particle fraction is present.
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Merged 3×3 optical micrograph of “step” region in a conical part. Damage appears to have occurred primarily at the region near the inside surface of the part. Insets A, B, C, and D show that many voids have nucleated due to particle fracture. Magnification: 200×.
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Applied pressure vs coil radius
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Predicted shape and void volume fraction history for the free-formed part (5% nucleation strain case). A segment of the part has been removed to illustrate the inside of the part. Fringes represent void volume fraction.
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Predicted shape and void volume fraction history for the conical part (5% nucleation strain). A segment of the part has been removed to illustrate the inside of the part. Fringes represent void volume fraction.
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Top element void volume fraction vs time for different nucleation strains
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Fractured sample formed at 7.7 kV
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Part formed using the conical die
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Engineering major vs. minor strain for conical parts (rolling direction). AA 5754 FLD from Lee 24.
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Necked free-formed sample (6.5 kV)
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Safe free-formed sample (5.8 kV)
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Engineering Major vs Minor strains for free form samples formed with 5.8 kV. See Fig. 4 for location of regions A, B and C. AA 5754 FLD from Lee 24.
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Optical micrograph of necked free formed specimen (6.5 kV) at the maximum strain region. Voids (black) due second phase particle (dark gray) fracture and debonding can be seen. Magnification: 100×
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Top element hydrostatic stress and void volume fraction history for cone model with 5% nucleation strain
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Bottom element hydrostatic pressure and void volume fraction history for cone model with 5% nucleation strain
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Top element void volume fraction vs time for blank formed into cone die. Note that the 15% and 20% nucleation strain lines are nearly identical.
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Bottom element void volume fraction vs time for blank formed into cone die. Note that the 15% and 20% nucleation strain lines are nearly identical.
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Comparison of top and bottom element void volume fraction histories for the 5% nucleation strain case
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Section view showing the pre and post-impact geometry. Fringes represent predicted void volume fraction for the 5% nucleation strain case.
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Predicted hydrostatic stress and void volume fraction history for failed elements in the free form simulations. The hydrostatic stress is normalized by yield stress.

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