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SPECIAL SECTION ON DAMPING OF SHAPE MEMORY ALLOYS, COMPOSITES, AND FOAMS

Finite Element Analysis of Adaptive-Stiffening and Shape-Control SMA Hybrid Composites

[+] Author and Article Information
Xiujie Gao1

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208

Deborah Burton

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208

Travis L. Turner

Structural Acoustics Branch, NASA Langley Research Center, Mail Stop 463, Hampton, VA 23681

L. Catherine Brinson

Department of Mechanical Engineering and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208cbrinson@northwestern.edu

1

Current affiliation: General Motors Research and Development, Warren, MI 48090.

J. Eng. Mater. Technol 128(3), 285-293 (Apr 12, 2006) (9 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2203108 History: Received August 31, 2005; Revised April 12, 2006

Shape memory alloy (SMA) hybrid composites with adaptive-stiffening or morphing functions are simulated using finite element analysis. The composite structure is a laminated fiber-polymer composite beam with embedded SMA ribbons at various positions with respect to the neutral axis of the beam. Adaptive stiffening or morphing is activated via selective resistance heating of the SMA ribbons or uniform thermal loads on the beam. The thermomechanical behavior of these composites was simulated in ABAQUS using user-defined SMA elements. The examples demonstrate the usefulness of the methods for the design and simulation of SMA hybrid composites.

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Copyright © 2006 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

(a) Conceptual airplane with morphing airfoil made of shape memory alloy hybrid composites. (b) Adaptive stiffening prototype beam at NASA undergoing a temperature ramp test (28).

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Figure 2

Typical phase diagram for a shape memory alloy. [M], [A], [d] and [t] are regions of transformation between martensite and austenite. [M] and [d] are associated with formation of detwinned martensite (with accompanying macroscopic strain), while [t] is associated with twinned martensite (no accompanying macroscopic strain). A thermomechanical loading path, Γ, is shown with several switching points indicated by solid circles. Loading path tangent, τ, and transformation strip distances, ρ, are indicated. At high σ and T, SMAs have a zone of irreversible plastic deformation which is not shown in this figure. The composite is loaded so that SMA wires do not enter this region as it is not useful for the applications considered in this paper.

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Figure 3

(Left) Schematic of clamped beam buckling. (Right) Schematic of cantilever shape control.

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Figure 4

(Top) Schematic of the cross-section of the adaptive stiffening prototype beam. (Bottom) Finite element model.

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Figure 5

Buckling of heated adaptive stiffening composite. Five complete heating and cooling cycles are plotted. (Top) Measured and predicted midspan, postbuckling deflection. (Middle) Path in the phase diagram. (Bottom) Martensite volume fraction.

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Figure 6

Adaptive stiffening composite with multiple buckling. All graphs plotted on same temperature scale. (Top) Measured and predicted midspan, postbuckling deflection. (Middle) Path in the phase diagram. (Bottom) Martensite volume fraction.

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Figure 7

(Top) Schematic of the cross section of the shape-control prototype beam. (Bottom) Finite element model.

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Figure 8

(Top) Predicted tip deflection versus temperature for the shape control composite. (Middle) Path in the phase diagram. (Bottom) Martensite volume fraction versus temperature of tip shape memory element.

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Figure 9

Tip deflection versus the relative position of the shape memory ribbon layer in the composite beam

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