Superelastic NiTi shape memory alloy (SMA) wires and bars are studied to determine their damping and recentering capability for applications in the structural control of buildings subjected to earthquake loadings. These studies improve the knowledge base in regard to the use of SMAs in seismic design and retrofit of structures. The results show that the damping properties of austenitic SMAs are generally low. However, the residual strain obtained after loading to 6% strain is typically . In general, it is shown that large diameters bars perform as well as wire specimens used in non-civil-engineering applications. The results of a small-scale shake table test are then presented as a proof of concept study of a SMA cross-bracing system. These results are verified through analytical nonlinear time history analysis. Finally, a three-story steel frame implementing either a traditional steel buckling-allowed bracing system or a SMA bracing system is analyzed analytically to determine if there is an advantage to using a SMA bracing system. The results show that the SMA braces improve the response of the braced frames.