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RESEARCH PAPERS

Combustion Synthesis of a Functionally Graded NiTi-TiCx Composite

[+] Author and Article Information
Douglas E. Burkes1

Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Department, and Institute for Space Resources, Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois Street, Golden, CO 80401dburkes@mines.edu

John J. Moore

Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Department, and Institute for Space Resources, Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois Street, Golden, CO 80401

1

Corresponding author.

J. Eng. Mater. Technol 128(3), 445-450 (Feb 27, 2006) (6 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2204950 History: Received September 19, 2005; Revised February 27, 2006

Combustion synthesis (CS) is an alternative technique for producing advanced materials and is dependent upon a highly exothermic chemical reaction to become self-sustaining after only a short energy pulse is applied to initiate the reaction. A NiTi-TiCx functionally graded material (FGM) was investigated that combines superelastic and shape memory capabilities of NiTi with the high hardness, wear, and corrosion resistance of TiCx. CS was employed to produce a FGM from 100% TiCx ceramic to 100% NiTi intermetallic. Temperature and burning velocity data of the CS reaction were recorded. XRD of the final product layers was conducted to determine phase composition. The combustion temperature, burning velocity, and cooling rate in each layer decreased with increasing NiTi content. Large blowholes were present in the high NiTi content layers as a result of outgassing of volatile species from the reactant powders. XRD analysis revealed the presence of Ni-Ti intermetallics along with a substoichiometric TiC (TiC0.7). Production of a NiTi-TiCx FGM is possible through use of a CS reaction employing the propagating mode (SHS). The material layers were observed as functionally graded in both composition and porosity.

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Copyright © 2006 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 4

Vertical cross-sectional digital photograph of combustion synthesized FGM: (a) TiCx, (b) TiCx-20vol% NiTi, (c) TiCx-40vol% NiTi, (d) TiCx-60vol% NiTi, (e) TiCx-80vol% NiTi and (f) NiTi. Each division on the scale bar to the right of the sample represents 1mm.

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Figure 5

Calculated adiabatic temperature, observed combustion temperature and burning velocity as a function of vol % NiTi content

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Figure 7

XRD analysis of six individual product layers comprising NiTi–TiCx FGM. (a) TiCx layer, (b) TiCx-20vol% NiTi layer, (c) TiCx-40vol% NiTi layer (d) TiCx-60vol% NiTi layer, (e) TiCx-80vol% NiTi layer and (f) NiTi layer.

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Figure 6

Time-temperature profiles as observed by thermocouples placed in the TiCx layer, TiCx-20vol% NiTi layer, TiCx-40vol% NiTi layer, TiCx-60vol% NiTi layer, TiCx-80vol% NiTi layer and NiTi layer

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Figure 3

Photographs of the FGM combustion synthesis reaction as a function of time. The scale bar to the left of each photograph represents the original sample length of 30mm.

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Figure 2

Schematic of combustion synthesis chamber

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Figure 1

Photograph of initial “green” sample compact and reacted FGM

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