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DESIGN INNOVATION

Application of EDM Hole-Drilling Method to the Measurement of Residual Stress in Tool and Carbon Steels

[+] Author and Article Information
Hwa-Teng Lee

Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1, Dashiue Road, 70101 Tainan City, Taiwanhtlee@mail.ncku.edu.tw

Joachim Mayer

Central Facility for Electron Microscopy (GFE), RWTH-Aachen University, Ahornstr. 55, D-52074 Aachen, Germanymayer@gfe.rwth-aachen.de

Fu-Chuan Hsu

 Metal Industries Research & Development Centre (MIRDC), Micro/Meso Mechanical Manufacturing R&D Department, Mold and Precision Machining Technology Section, 1001 Kaonan Highway, 81101 Kaohsiung City, Taiwanfchsu@mail.mirdc.org.tw

Werner P. Rehbach

Central Facility for Electron Microscopy (GFE), RWTH-Aachen University, Ahornstr. 55, D-52074 Aachen, Germanyrehbach@gfe.rwth-aachen.de

Thomas Weirich

Central Facility for Electron Microscopy (GFE), RWTH-Aachen University, Ahornstr. 55, D-52074 Aachen, Germanyweirich@gfe.rwth-aachen.de

Arbi Dimyati

Central Facility for Electron Microscopy (GFE), RWTH-Aachen University, Ahornstr. 55, D-52074 Aachen, Germanyarbi̱dimyati@gfe.rwth-aachen.de

Tzu-Yao Tai

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Southern Taiwan University of Technology (STUT), No. 1, Nan-Tai Street, 71005 Yungkang City, Taiwantytai@mail.stut.edu.tw

J. Eng. Mater. Technol 128(3), 468-475 (Mar 05, 2006) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2204953 History: Received February 15, 2005; Revised March 05, 2006

This study adopts the application of the electrodischarge machining (EDM) hole-drilling method to the measurement of residual stress in AISI D2 cold work tool steel, AISI H13 hot work tool steel, and AISI 1045 medium carbon steel. A calibration procedure based on the thermal conductivity of the material is conducted to compensate for the additional compressive stress induced in the workpiece by the EDM hole-drilling operation. Since the formation of this white layer influences the magnitude of the induced stress, the scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and nanoindentation techniques are used to examine the microstructure and hardness of the white layer resolidified on the EDMed surface. The experimental results reveal that combination of the hole-drilling strain-gage method (ASTM standard E837) with an EDM drilling process provides the effective means of determining the residual stress in materials with high hardness and good wear resistance.

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Copyright © 2006 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 2

Relationship between thermal conductivity and drilling induced stress. Electrode material: CuW, Ψ=1.5mm; EDM condition: 120V∕12A∕6μs∕30μs.

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Figure 3

Stress measurement curves obtained by the HS hole-drilling method and EDM hole-drilling method with different EDM conditions. Electrode material: CuW, Ψ=1.5mm; workpiece material: AISI 1045.

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Figure 4

Stress measurement curves for different materials obtained by the EDM hole-drilling method with constant EDM conditions. Electrode material: CuW, Ψ=1.5mm; EDM conditions: 120V∕12A∕6μs∕30μs.

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Figure 6

Positions of nanoindentations on the cross section of the EDMed surface. WL: white layer; HAZ: heat affected zone; Material: AISI 1045; EDM conditions: 120V∕12A∕6μs∕30μs; Electrode material: CuW, Ψ=1.5mm.

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Figure 7

Nanoindentation load-displacement curves for WL and base material. Material: AISI 1045; EDM conditions: 120V∕12A∕6μs∕30μs; electrode material: CuW, Ψ=1.5mm.

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Figure 8

Nanohardness results along the cross section of the EDMed surface. Material: AISI 1045; EDM conditions: 120V∕12A∕6μs∕30μs. Electrode material: CuW, Ψ=1.5mm

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Figure 9

Microstructure of α′ martensite in the WL as observed by TEM: (a) Bright field of martensite, and (b) diffraction pattern of martensite. Material: AISI 1045 carbon steel; EDM parameters: 120V∕12A∕6μs∕30μs; electrode material: CuW, Ψ=1.5mm.

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Figure 10

Hole geometry of drilled hole: (a) HS hole-drilling method, (b) EDM hole-drilling method. Material: AISI 1045, EDM conditions: 200V∕4A∕9μs∕9μs; electrode material: CuW, Ψ=1.5mm.

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Figure 11

Calibration curve of the EDM hole-drilling method for residual stress measurement in different materials. σcal.: calibration stress; electrode material: CuW, Ψ=1.5mm; EDM conditions: 120V∕12A∕6μs∕30μs.

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Figure 5

Surface integrity and WLT on the cross section of the EDMed surface machined by a CuW electrode, Ψ1.5mm: (a) AISI D2, thermal conductivity k=20.9W∕mK, WLT=4–9μm, extremely open cracks, (b) AISI H13, thermal conductivity k=28.4W∕mK, WLT=3–8μm, microcracks, and (c) AISI 1045, thermal conductivity k=50.2W∕mK, WLT=2–5μm, crack free; electrode material: CuW, Ψ=1.5mm; EDM conditions: 120V∕12A∕6μs∕30μs.

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Figure 1

Prestress device specially designed to fit specimens. Uniaxial stress generated by rotating screw.

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