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TECHNICAL BRIEF

Manufacturing Aspects Relating to the Effects of Direct Current on the Tensile Properties of Metals

[+] Author and Article Information
Carl D. Ross, David B. Irvin, John T. Roth

 Penn State Erie, The Behrend College, Erie, PA 16563

J. Eng. Mater. Technol 129(2), 342-347 (Jan 18, 2007) (6 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2712470 History: Received December 30, 2005; Revised January 18, 2007

For metals, deformation is commonly conducted at elevated temperatures, reducing the overall process energy and cost. However, elevating the temperature has many drawbacks, including high tool/die adhesions, environmental reactivity, etc. Therefore, this study examines using an electrical current to reduce the deformation energy and presents electricity’s effects on the tensile properties of various materials. The influences of strain rate and cold work are also investigated. The results demonstrate that, when current flows through a metallic specimen, the material’s yield strength, flow stress, and elastic modulus are decreased; strain weakening occurs; and the total energy of deformation is decreased. These changes in the engineering stress-strain behavior occurred in all of the materials tested and are much greater than can be accounted for by resistive heating. However, the effects diminish with increasing strain rate. The analysis shows that applying electricity during deformation provides a viable alternative to increasing the workpiece temperature for deformation-based manufacturing processes.

Copyright © 2007 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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References

Figures

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Experimental setup for electrical flow experiments

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Figure 2

Correction of aluminum data for fixture and heat

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Figure 3

6061 T6511 aluminum: Stress-strain

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C11000 copper: Stress-strain

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C36000 annealed brass: Stress-strain

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C36000 naturally aged (>15yr) brass: Stress-strain

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2024-T4 aluminum: Stress-strain

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2024-T351 aluminum: Stress-strain

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C46400 annealed brass: Stress-strain

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7075-T6 aluminum: Stress-strain

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AISI-type 304 stainless steel: Stress-strain

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AISI-type A2 tool steel: Stress-strain

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RC-130B titanium: Stress-strain

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6061-T6511 aluminum: 76.8mm∕min: Stress-strain

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C36000 aged brass: 76.8mm∕min: Stress-strain

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2024-T351 aluminum cold worked: Stress-strain

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C36000 aged brass cold worked: Stress-strain

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AISI-type A2 tool steel cold worked: Stress-strain

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