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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Evaluation of Flow Stresses of Tubular Materials Considering Anisotropic Effects by Hydraulic Bulge Tests

[+] Author and Article Information
Yeong-Maw Hwang1

Department of Mechanical and Electro-Mechanical Engineering, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan 804ymhwang@mail.nsysu.edu.tw

Yi-Kai Lin

Department of Mechanical and Electro-Mechanical Engineering, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan 804

1

Corresponding author.

J. Eng. Mater. Technol 129(3), 414-421 (Dec 26, 2006) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2744406 History: Received April 21, 2006; Revised December 26, 2006

This paper aims to evaluate the stress-strain characteristics of tubular materials considering their anisotropic effects by hydraulic bulge tests and a proposed analytical model. In this analytical model, Hill’s orthogonal anisotropic theory was adopted for deriving the effective stresses and effective strains under a biaxial stress state. Annealed AA6011 aluminum tubes and SUS409 stainless-steel tubes were used for the bulge test. The tube thickness at the pole, bulge height, and the internal forming pressure were measured simultaneously during the bulge test. The effective stress-effective strain relations could be determined by those measured values and this proposed analytical model. The flow stress curves of the tubular materials obtained by this approach were compared with those obtained by the tensile test with consideration of the anisotropic effect. The finite element method was also adopted to conduct the simulations of hydraulic bulge forming with the flow stress curves obtained by the bulge tests and tensile tests. The analytical forming pressures versus bulge heights were compared with the experimental results to validate the approach proposed in this paper.

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Copyright © 2007 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

Schematic figure of bulge tests

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Figure 2

Schematic figure of circumferential and meridian radii of curvature on the tube surface

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Figure 3

Schematic figure of an experimental apparatus for bulge tests

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Figure 4

Specimen cut from a tube for tensile tests

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Figure 5

Strain relationships of SUS409 tubes by tensile tests

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Figure 6

Strain relationships of AA6011 tubes by tensile tests

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Figure 7

Outlook of stainless steel and aluminum tubes before and after bulge tests

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Figure 8

Flow chart for determining the flow stress of tubular materials by bulge tests considering anisotropy

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Figure 9

Flow stress curves of SUS409 tubes by bulge and tensile tests

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Figure 10

Flow stress curves of AA6011 tubes by bulge and tensile tests

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Figure 11

Pressure variation with bulge height for different friction coefficients

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Figure 12

Pressure variation with bulge height using different flow stresses given in Table 3

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Figure 13

Pressure variation with bulge height using different flow stresses given in Table 4

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