We describe our recent work on developing X-ray diffraction microscopy as a tool for studying three dimensional microstructure dynamics. This is a measurement technique that is demanding of experimental hardware and presents a challenging computational problem to reconstruct the sample microstructure. A dedicated apparatus exists at beamline 1-ID of the Advanced Photon Source for performing these measurements. Submicron mechanical precision is combined with focusing optics that yield wide line focused beam at . Our forward modeling analysis approach generates diffraction from a simulated two dimensional triangular mesh. Each mesh element is assigned an independent orientation by optimizing the fit to experimental data. The method is computationally demanding but is adaptable to parallel computation. We illustrate the state of development by measuring and reconstructing a planar section of an aluminum polycrystal microstructure. An orientation map of grains is obtained along with a map showing the spatial variation in the quality of the fit to the data. Sensitivity to orientation variations within grains is on the order of . Volumetric studies of the response of microstructures to thermal or mechanical treatment will soon become practical. It should be possible to incorporate explicit treatment of defect distributions and to observe their evolution.