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Research Papers

Failure of Cylindrical Brittle Deposits Impacted by a Supersonic Air Jet

[+] Author and Article Information
M. Eslamian, A. Pophali, D. E. Cormack, H. N. Tran

Pulp and Paper Centre and Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, University of Toronto, 200 College Street, Toronto, ON, M5S 3E5, Canada

M. Bussmann1

Pulp and Paper Centre and Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto, 5 King’s College Road, Toronto, ON, M5S 3G8, Canadabussmann@mie.utoronto.ca

1

Corresponding author.

J. Eng. Mater. Technol 130(3), 031002 (May 22, 2008) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2931147 History: Received March 17, 2007; Revised April 04, 2008; Published May 22, 2008

The failure of a cylindrical brittle material impacted by a supersonic air jet is investigated. Gypsum was cast around steel tubes to simulate the deposit formed on tube surfaces in industrial boilers. The breakup behavior of two deposit sizes, positioned at several distances from the nozzle exit, was visualized and documented using a high-speed video camera. Three deposit failure behaviors were observed: (i) crack formation and propagation along the longitudinal axis of the cylinder, (ii) surface pitting followed by axial crack formation, and (iii) surface pitting followed by spalling. These types of failure depend on the ratio of jet diameter to deposit diameter, which affects the magnitudes of compressive, tensile, and shear forces induced within the material. By analyzing the breakup movies, characteristics of the broken deposits, such as the breakup duration and the amount of deposit removed, were measured. Also, the effects of deposit thickness and distance from the nozzle exit on these characteristics were investigated.

Copyright © 2008 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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References

Figures

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Figure 1

Schematic of the experimental apparatus

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Figure 2

(a) Schematic and (b) photo of the mold

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Figure 3

Centerline variation of the PIP for a free jet

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Figure 4

Removal behavior of white grease from (a) a soft thick deposit and (b) a hard thick deposit

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Figure 5

Typical images of breakup due to axial crack formation for a thin deposit placed 9cm from the nozzle exit. Breakup begins at time t=0

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Figure 6

Typical images of breakup due to surface pitting followed by axial crack formation for a thick deposit placed 9cm from the nozzle exit

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Figure 7

Typical images of breakup due to surface pitting and spalling for a thick deposit placed 5cm from the nozzle exit

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Figure 8

Definitions of (a) prebreakup and breakup durations and of (b) breakup length

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Figure 9

Variation of prebreakup duration versus distance from the nozzle exit for thin and thick deposits

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Figure 10

Variation of breakup duration versus distance from the nozzle exit for thin and thick deposits

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Figure 11

Variation of breakup length versus distance from the nozzle exit for thin and thick deposits

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Figure 12

Failure due to axial crack formation

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Figure 13

The mechanism behind surface pitting

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Figure 14

Failure due to surface pitting followed by axial crack formation

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Figure 15

Failure due to spalling

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