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Research Papers

Densification, Microstructure, and Behavior of Hydroxyapatite Ceramics Sintered by Using Spark Plasma Sintering

[+] Author and Article Information
Shufeng Li1

College of Science and Technology, Nihon University, 7-24-1 Narashinodai, Funabashi, Chiba, 274-8501, Japanshufengster@gmail.com

Hiroshi Izui

College of Science and Technology, Nihon University, 7-24-1 Narashinodai, Funabashi, Chiba, 274-8501, Japan

Michiharu Okano

College of Science and Technology, Nihon University, 1-8-14 Kandasurugadai, Chiyoda, Tokyo, 101-8308, Japan

1

Corresponding author.

J. Eng. Mater. Technol 130(3), 031012 (Jun 11, 2008) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2931153 History: Received August 13, 2007; Revised February 20, 2008; Published June 11, 2008

This paper discusses the dependence of the mechanical properties and microstructure of sintered hydroxyapatite (HA) on the sintering temperature and pressure. A set of specimens was prepared from as-received HA powder and sintered by using a spark plasma sintering (SPS) process. The sintering pressures were set at 22.3MPa, 44.6MPa, and 66.9MPa, and sintering was performed in the temperature range from 800°Cto1000°C at each pressure. Mechanisms underlying the interrelated temperature-mechanical and pressure-mechanical properties of dense HA were investigated. The effects of temperature and pressure on the flexural strength, Young’s modulus, fracture toughness, relative density, activation energy, phase stability, and microstructure were assessed. The relative density and grain size increased with an increase in the temperature. The flexural strength and Young’s modulus increased with an increase in the temperature, giving maximum values of 131.5MPa and 75.6GPa, respectively, at a critical temperature of 950°C and 44.6MPa, and the fracture toughness was 1.4MPam12 at 1000°C at 44.6MPa. Increasing the sintering pressure led to acceleration of the densification of HA.

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Copyright © 2008 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

SEM image of the morphology and an XRD pattern of the as-received SHA100 powder

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Figure 2

XRD patterns of specimens sintered at different temperatures and a pressure of 66.9MPa compared with the pattern of the as-received SHA100 powder

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Figure 3

Relative density of sintered SHA100 versus sintering temperature at different sintering pressures

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Figure 8

Flexural strength of HA sintered at different sintering pressures as a function of sintering temperature

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Figure 9

Young’s modulus of HA sintered at different pressures as a function of sintering temperature

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Figure 10

SEM micrographs of the morphology of the Vickers indentations of samples sintered at different pressures used for determining the fracture toughness

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Figure 11

Fracture toughness of HA sintered at different pressures as a function of sintering temperature

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Figure 12

SEM image of the morphology of the fracture surface of HA sintered at 1000°C and 66.9MPa

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Figure 7

Arrhenius plot of natural logarithm of the mean grain size versus the reciprocal of the sintering temperature at different pressures

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Figure 6

Average grain size of SHA100 sintered at different pressures as a function of the sintering temperature

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Figure 5

SEM image of the morphology of the cross sections of SHA100 sintered at different temperatures and pressures: (a)–(c) 22.3MPa, (a′)–(c′)44.6MPa, and (a″)–(c″)66.9MPa

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Figure 4

Transparency of HA compacts sintered at 44.6MPa

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