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Research Papers

The Influence of Ultrasonic Energy on Chemical Treatment of Surface Properties and the Properties of Composites Made of Luffa Cylindrical Fiber-Polyester Resin

[+] Author and Article Information
E. Dilara Koçak

Textile Department, Technical Education Faculty, Marmara University, Goztepe/Istanbul 81140, Turkeydkocak@marmara.edu.tr

J. Eng. Mater. Technol 130(4), 041006 (Sep 09, 2008) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2969251 History: Received July 31, 2007; Revised May 15, 2008; Published September 09, 2008

Producing composites from natural fibers is known to be common. These fibers benefit from their mechanical performances, low density, and their biodegradability. However, it is necessary for the fibers to form adhesion in the matrix. Therefore, it is necessary to apply a chemical process to the surface of the fibers. In this study, four different processes in conventional and ultrasonic energies were applied on luffa cylindrical fibers. At the end of the application, a composite structure was formed on the fibers that were obtained by using unsaturated polyester resin. The changes in the characteristics of the composite structure were recorded by mechanical tests, Fourier transform infrared, X-ray diffractometer, and their morphological characteristics by means of scanning electron microscopy. Considering all the results, formic acid and acetic acid process results were found to adequately modify the fiber surfaces.

Copyright © 2008 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 2

Following the four different chemicals and two different conventional and ultrasonic energy methods, the mechanical values of the composites made of luffa cylindrical fibers

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Figure 3

FTIR spectrum of raw luffa cylindrical fibers

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Figure 4

Partial substitution of hydroxyl groups from lignocelluloses fibers (4)

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Figure 5

FTIR spectrum following the formic acid application to luffa fibers by conventional process

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Figure 6

FTIR spectrum results following the formic acid application to luffa fibers with ultrasonic energy

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Figure 7

FTIR spectrum results following the acetic acid treatment with ultrasonic energy

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Figure 8

Untreated luffa cylindrical fibers

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Figure 9

Untreated luffa cylindrical fibers/PES resin composite

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Figure 10

Treated luffa cylindrical fibers with formic acid by ultrasonic energy process

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Figure 11

Treated luffa cylindrical fibers with formic acid by ultrasonic energy process/PES resin composites

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Figure 12

Treated luffa cylindrical fibers with acetic acid by ultrasonic energy process

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Figure 13

Treated luffa cylindrical fibers with acetic acid by ultrasonic energy process/PES resin composites

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Figure 14

Treated luffa cylindrical fibers with formic acid by conventional process

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Figure 15

Treated luffa cylindrical fibers with formic acid by conventional process/PES resin composites

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Figure 16

Treated luffa cylindrical fibers with acetic acid by conventional process

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Figure 17

Treated luffa cylindrical fibers with acetic acid by conventional process/PES resin composites

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Figure 18

X-ray diffractometer results of untreated fibers /PES resin composites, and fibers treated with acetic acid by ultrasonic energy process/PES resin composite and with formic acid by ultrasonic energy process/PES resin composite

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