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Research Papers

Simulation of Damage Percolation Within Aluminum Alloy Sheet

[+] Author and Article Information
O. S. Orlov

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1, Canada

M. J. Worswick1

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1, Canadaworswick@lagavulin.uwaterloo.ca

E. Maire

Laboratory GEMPPM, INSA de Lyon, Batiment Saint Exupery, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex, France

D. J. Lloyd

Kingston R&D Centre, Novelis Inc., P.O. Box 8400, Kingston, ON, K1S 5L9, Canada

1

Corresponding author.

J. Eng. Mater. Technol 131(2), 021001 (Mar 06, 2009) (12 pages) doi:10.1115/1.3078389 History: Received July 19, 2007; Revised November 17, 2008; Published March 06, 2009

A combined experimental and analytical approach is used to study damage initiation and evolution in three-dimensional second phase particle fields. A three-dimensional formulation of a damage percolation model is developed to predict damage nucleation and propagation through random-clustered second phase particle fields. The proposed approach is capable of capturing the three-dimensional character of damage phenomena and the three stages of ductile fracture, namely, void nucleation, growth, and coalescence, at the level of discrete particles. An in situ tensile test with X-ray tomography is utilized to quantify material damage during deformation in terms of the number of nucleated voids and porosity. The results of this experiment are used for both the development of a clustering-sensitive nucleation criterion and the validation of the damage percolation predictions. The evolution of damage in aluminum alloy AA5182 has been successfully predicted to match that in the in situ tensile specimen. Two forms of second phase particle field input data were considered: (1) that measured directly with X-ray tomography and (2) fields reconstructed statistically from two-dimensional orthogonal sections. It is demonstrated that the adoption of a cluster-sensitive void nucleation criterion, as opposed to a cluster-insensitive nucleation criterion, has a significant effect in promoting predicted void nucleation to occur within particle clusters. This behavior leads to confinement of void coalescence to within clusters for most of the duration of deformation followed by later development of a macrocrack through intracluster coalescence. The measured and reconstructed second phase particle fields lead to similar rates of predicted damage accumulation and can be used interchangeably in damage percolation simulations.

Copyright © 2009 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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References

Figures

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Figure 1

Three-dimensional damage percolation model algorithm

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Figure 2

Void growth rule (based on the results of Thomson (21))

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Figure 3

Coalescing voids

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Figure 4

In situ tensile testing: (a) AA5182 tensile specimen and (b) curves of load versus displacement (three stages)

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Figure 5

Specimen’s volume of interest. Darker material in the middle represents the region of elevated stress triaxiality (up to 0.61). Material at surface is in uniaxial tension (stress triaxiality 0.33).

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Figure 6

Measured porosity versus plastic strain

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Figure 7

Number of PVIs versus IPD for Mg2Si particles

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Figure 8

Number of PVIs versus IPD for Fe-rich particles

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Figure 9

Fe-rich particle nucleation probability density functions for different plastic strain levels

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Figure 10

Number of PVIs versus plastic strain

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Figure 11

Probability density function of Fe-rich particle nucleation

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Figure 12

Number of PVI evolution approximations

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Figure 13

Fe-rich particle volume relative frequency function

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Figure 14

Clustering-sensitive nucleation criterion

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Figure 15

Clustering-sensitive nucleation criterion

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Figure 16

Tensile specimen finite element mesh

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Figure 17

True stress versus effective plastic strain relationship for aluminum alloy AA5182

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Figure 18

Second phase particle field (896×896×292 mm3 volume). The large square is an enlargement of the smaller square.

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Figure 19

Distribution of porosity at 0.805 mm specimen elongation. First event of intercluster coalescence. Subsequent deformation leads to widespread void/crack coalescence and final rupture (896×896×292 mm3 volume originally).

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Figure 20

Nucleated voids and cracks at 0.805 mm specimen elongation (0.405 maximum plastic strain). First event of intercluster coalescence. Subsequent deformation leads to widespread void/crack coalescence and final rupture (896×896×292 mm3 volume originally).

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Figure 21

Number of nucleated voids per unit volume versus effective plastic strain

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Figure 22

Coalescence predictions for cluster-insensitive and cluster-sensitive nucleation criteria

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Figure 23

Porosity versus effective plastic strain

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Figure 24

Porosity evolution in measured and reconstructed second phase particle fields

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