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Research Papers

An Experimental Approach to Continuous Dieless Wire Drawing (Variant A) Using ELI Ti–6Al–4V Alloy

[+] Author and Article Information
M. D. Naughton

Department of Manufacturing and Operations Engineering, University of Limerick, Limerick, Ireland

P. Tiernan1

Materials and Surface Science Institute (MSSI), University of Limerick, Limerick, Irelandpeter.tiernan@ul.ie

1

Corresponding author.

J. Eng. Mater. Technol 131(2), 021005 (Mar 09, 2009) (10 pages) doi:10.1115/1.3078304 History: Received March 07, 2008; Revised December 01, 2008; Published March 09, 2009

This research paper describes a specifically constructed Variant A continuous dieless wire-drawing machine to experimentally determine the principal processing parameters for dieless wire drawing using extra low interstitial Ti–6Al–4V wire alloy. It was experimentally determined that the process was limited by the ratio of the ingoing and outgoing axial velocities, also known as the reduction ratio R and influenced by the primary drawing velocity V1. Reductions of up to 36% per pass wire in cross-sectional area (CSA) were achieved. However, a direct relationship between the wire diameter variation and an increase in overall achievable reduction in CSA was observed. The separation distance between the wire heating and cooling devices (S) was identified as one of the principal governing process parameters. It was found that processing in an inert gas environment led to an increased reduction on CSA of approximately 3% per pass when compared with processing in compressed air. This was attributed to a reduction in surface oxidation and stress cracking. The experimentally determined results showed excellent agreement with a proposed mathematical model. It was also determined that the calculated strain rate for the process fell within the boundaries of previously determined strain rates for this particular alloy. The successful operation of this experimental machine effectively illustrates the possible commercial validity of continuous dieless wire drawing.

Copyright © 2009 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 4

Superimposed m versus the log of strain rate (top half); also, the key plot of the log strain rate against log flow stress from which m was determined (lower half)

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Figure 5

The experimentally and theoretically determined results for ELI grade Ti–6Al–4V at 950°C illustrating the effect that strain rate has on the overall flow stress (using the activation energy model of Guo and Ridley (26))

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Figure 6

The dieless wire drawing machine constructed for dieless wire drawing experimentation

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Figure 7

Schematic of the Variant A dieless wire drawing machine

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Figure 8

Motor/roller schematic of the continuous dieless wire drawing machine

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Figure 9

Results of experiments carried out at various V1 and V2 ratios at separation distances (S): (a) 10 mm, (b) 20 mm, and (c) 30 mm in both air and argon cooling environments

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Figure 10

Photographs of the drawn samples: (a) undrawn sample, and (b) V1=0.09 m/s

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Figure 11

Examples of broken and uneven samples

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Figure 12

The effect of increasing the separation distance on the overall reduction (%) in both argon and air

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Figure 13

Maximum achievable reductions at S=30 and V1=0.09 m/s in both argon and air-cooling/heating environments

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Figure 14

Evidence of corrosion on drawn samples in an air rich environment

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Figure 15

Photomicrographs of the effects of processing in both (a) air and (b) argon rich environments

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Figure 16

The effect of increasing the reduction ratio (R) on the wire diameter variation (maximum drawn diameter-minimum drawn wire diameter)

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Figure 17

Heat quantities required (J/s) for various reductions (%) at varying drawing velocities

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Figure 18

Theoretical calculations versus experimentally determined results illustrating the reduction (mm) from the nominal value (2.36 mm) against the reduction ratio, R in both argon and air-cooling environments

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Figure 19

Calculated strain rate (s−1) for various reductions (%) at various drawing speeds (m/s)

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Figure 20

Drawing force per pass using Siebel’s (33) theory of wire drawing

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Figure 21

Progression chart comparing dieless wire drawing to conventional wire drawing

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Figure 3

Kinematic analysis of the forces and velocities used during dieless wire drawing

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Figure 2

Modus operandi of dieless drawing illustrating the three Variants, A, B, and C (2)

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Figure 1

Comparison of conventional drawing and dieless drawing (2)

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