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Research Papers

Control of 3003-H18 Aluminum Ultrasonic Consolidation

[+] Author and Article Information
M. Kulakov

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634

H. J. Rack1

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634rackh@exchange.clemson.edu

1

Corresponding author.

J. Eng. Mater. Technol 131(2), 021006 (Mar 09, 2009) (6 pages) doi:10.1115/1.3078303 History: Received April 27, 2008; Revised October 26, 2008; Published March 09, 2009

Ultrasonic consolidation of 150μm thick 3003-H18 aluminum foil to a 3003-H18 build plate has been investigated. The effects of the normal load, vibrational amplitude, and sonotrode velocity on consolidation quality as characterized by the total linear weld density (LWD) including both edge and edge defects were examined utilizing two sequential three-level full factorial design of experiments at a constant build plate temperature of 150°C. These showed that the normal load and the vibrational amplitude have a significant influence on LWD, while the sonotrode rotational velocity has only a marginal effect. The formation of edge defects at the foil-build plate interface has been attributed to the nonuniform strain state across the foil width, while the central defects were related to sonotrode-foil contact pressure variations following the sonotrode pattern. In addition, LWD variations in ±10–20% were attributed to a nonuniform sonotrode-foil contact pressure distribution. Finally, representation of the total LWD as a function of the control parameters indicates that high total linear weld densities can be achieved with a control space bounded by high normal loads and intermediate to high vibrational amplitudes. Consideration of only central defects expands this control space allowing utilization of lower normal loads and vibrational amplitudes to achieve similar linear weld densities.

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Copyright © 2009 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

Schematic illustration of ultrasonic consolidation process

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Figure 2

(a) Low and (b) high magnification views of the sonotrode surface

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Figure 3

Representative images of central defects in samples (a) 925, 5, and 15.2 and (b) 1800, 29, and 45.7

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Figure 4

Representative images of edge defects in samples (a) 500, 12, and 15.2 and (b) 1000, 19, and 76.2

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Figure 5

Results of total LWD measurements for generalized DOE (sonotrode velocity: ×, 15.2 mm/s; ○, 45.7 mm/s; and ◻, 76.2 mm/s)

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Figure 6

Results of total LWD measurements for refined DOE (sonotrode velocity: ×, 15.2 mm/s; ○, 45.7 mm/s; and ◻, 76.2 mm/s)

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Figure 7

Contour map illustrating influence of normal load and vibrational amplitude on total LWD at constant rotational velocities of (a) 15.2 mm/s, (b) 45.7 mm/s, and (c) 76.2 mm/s

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Figure 8

Contour map illustrating influence of normal load and vibrational amplitude on central LWD at a constant rotational velocity of 45.7 mm/s

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Figure 9

Contact pressure between sonotrode and pressure sensitive film

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Figure 10

Average edge defect length as a function of normal load

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