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Research Papers

Known Residual Stress Specimens Using Opposed Indentation

[+] Author and Article Information
Pierluigi Pagliaro

Dipartimento di Meccanica, Università degli Studi di Palermo, 90128 Palermo, Italypagliaro@dima.unipa.it

Michael B. Prime

 Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87544prime@lanl.gov

Bjørn Clausen, Manuel L. Lovato

 Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87544

Bernardo Zuccarello

Dipartimento di Meccanica, Università degli Studi di Palermo, 90128 Palermo, Italy

J. Eng. Mater. Technol 131(3), 031002 (May 21, 2009) (10 pages) doi:10.1115/1.3120386 History: Received June 17, 2008; Revised October 11, 2008; Published May 21, 2009

In order to test new theories for residual stress measurement or to test the effects of residual stress on fatigue, fracture, and stress corrosion cracking, a known stress test specimen was designed and then fabricated, modeled, and experimentally validated. To provide a unique biaxial stress state, a 60 mm diameter 10 mm thick disk of 316L stainless steel was plastically compressed through the thickness with an opposing 15 mm diameter hard steel indenters in the center of the disk. For validation, the stresses in the specimen were first mapped using time-of-flight neutron diffraction and Rietveld full pattern analysis. Next, the hoop stresses were mapped on a cross section of two disks using the contour method. The contour results were very repeatable and agreed well with the neutron results. The indentation process was modeled using the finite element method. Because of a significant Bauschinger effect, accurate modeling required testing the cyclic behavior of the steel and then modeling it using a Chaboche-type combined hardening law. The model results agreed very well with the measurements. The duplicate contour measurements demonstrated stress repeatability better than 0.01% of the elastic modulus and allowed discussion of implications of measurements of parts with complicated geometries.

Copyright © 2009 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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References

Figures

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Figure 1

Schematic illustrating (a) the indentation process and (b) the conceptual residual stress distribution obtained

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Figure 2

Quarter-symmetry drawing of the indentation fixture, dimensions in mm: R1=1 mm and R2=3 mm

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Figure 3

Metallography of the 316L plate after annealing, taken normal to one of the rolling directions; the scale bar is 100 μm long

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Figure 4

True stress-true strain curves of uniaxial compression tests for the 316L stainless steel along the three material directions

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Figure 5

Hardening behavior of the 316L in a uniaxial compression and tension together with the FE combined hardening model

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Figure 6

Load-displacement curves of the indentation process of the 316L SS disk and its FE prediction

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Figure 7

Details of the axial-symmetric finite element model used showing the planes of symmetry

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Figure 8

Finite element model prediction of (a) hoop and (b) radial residual stresses along the mid-thickness line using isotropic, kinematic, and combined hardening models of the 316L stainless steel

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Figure 9

Finite element model prediction of the radial, hoop, and axial residual stresses along the diameter plane using the ABAQUS combined hardening model of the 316L stainless steel. The cross hatched region in (c) is where the reverse plasticity is.

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Figure 10

Schematic setup of SMARTS for spatially resolved measurements, and (b) typical diffraction pattern. The crosses on are the data, the line through the data is the Rietveld refinement fit, and below those is the difference curve. The tick-marks indicate the positions of the face-centered cubic peaks.

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Figure 11

Location of gauge volumes (2×2×2 mm3) for the neutron measurements. Some gauge volumes are colored gray in order to distinguish overlapping volumes.

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Figure 12

Residual stress measured with the contour method and neutron diffraction on unindented disks of the stress-relieved 316L steel

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Figure 13

Maps of (a) radial, (b) hoop, and (c) axial residual stresses measured with neutron diffraction on the diametrical plane

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Figure 14

Residual hoop stress map measured with the contour method along the diameter plane for (a) disk A and (b) disk B

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Figure 15

Hoop residual stresses measured with neutron diffraction and contour method compared with the FE prediction

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Figure 16

Radial and axial residual stresses measured with neutron diffraction compared with the FE prediction

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