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Research Papers

Effect of dc on the Formability of Ti–6Al–4V

[+] Author and Article Information
Carl D. Ross, Thomas J. Kronenberger, John T. Roth

Penn State Erie, The Behrend College, Erie, PA 16563

J. Eng. Mater. Technol 131(3), 031004 (May 22, 2009) (11 pages) doi:10.1115/1.3078307 History: Received February 11, 2008; Revised November 04, 2008; Published May 22, 2009

Recent research has demonstrated that the mechanical properties of metals are altered when an electrical current is passed through the material. These studies suggest that titanium alloys, due to their low formability and need for dramatic improvement, should be subjected to additional study. The research presented herein further investigates the use of electricity to aid in the bulk deformation of Ti–6Al–4V under tensile and compressive loads. Extensive testing is presented, which documents the changes that occur in the formability of titanium due to the presence of an electrical current at varying current densities. Using carefully designed experiments, this study also characterizes and isolates the effect of resistive heating from the overall effect due to the electrical flow. This study clearly indicates that electrical flow affects the material beyond that which can be explained through resistive heating. The results demonstrate that an applied electrical current within the material during mechanical loading can greatly decrease the force needed to deform the titanium while also dramatically enhancing the degree to which it can be worked without fracturing. Isothermal testing further demonstrates that the changes are significantly beyond that which can be accounted for due to increases in the titanium’s temperature. The results are also supported by data from tests using pulsed and discontinuously applied current. Furthermore, current densities are identified that cause an enhanced formability behavior to occur. Overall, this work fully demonstrates that an electrical current can be used to significantly improve the formability of Ti–6Al–4V and that these improvements far exceed that which can be explained by resistive heating.

Copyright © 2009 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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References

Figures

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Effect on tensile stress-strain relationship

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Effect on compressive stress-strain relationship

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Isothermal test fixture

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Isothermal effects versus electrical effects (13)

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Compressive empirical temperature versus time profiles

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Compressive stress and temperature versus time profiles (13)

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Compressive temperature profile (13)

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Tensile temperature profile

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Compressive pulsed current effect

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Tensile pulsed current effect

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Compressive delayed electricity

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Tensile delayed and discontinued electricity

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Stress versus current density: compression tests

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Compressive current density versus strength

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Fixture force position curves

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Corrective effect of fixture curve (tension)

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Tension fixtures

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Compression fixtures

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Test setup schematic

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Figure 4

Fractured specimen with no electricity, fractured heated specimen, and specimen deformed to the limits of the fixtures

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