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Research Papers

Hole-Drilling Strain-Gauge Method: Residual Stress Measurement With Plasticity Effects

[+] Author and Article Information
D. Vangi

Department of Mechanics and Industrial Technology, Engineering Faculty, University of Florence, Via Santa Marta 3, 50139 Firenze, Italydario.vangi@unifi.it

S. Tellini

Department of Mechanics and Industrial Technology, Engineering Faculty, University of Florence, Via Santa Marta 3, 50139 Firenze, Italy

J. Eng. Mater. Technol 132(1), 011003 (Nov 02, 2009) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.3184030 History: Received July 25, 2008; Revised May 12, 2009; Published November 02, 2009; Online November 02, 2009

When measuring residual stresses using the hole-drilling strain-gauge method, plasticity effects arise if the residual stress level exceeds about 60% of the material yield strength. In this case the classical methods, which are based on the linear elastic material behavior, do not work properly and residual stresses are overestimated. This paper presents a numerical study of the influence of plasticity on residual stress measurement by using the hole-drilling strain-gauge method in those cases in which stress does not vary with depth. The study investigates the effects of the most important loading, measuring, geometry, and material variables. An iterative method, which can be applied to obviate these errors, is then presented. The method was implemented in ANSYS using the APDL macrolanguage (ANSYS Parametric Design Language Guide, Documentation for ansys 11.0) to automatically execute the procedure steps. A finite element model of the hole, which allows for plasticity, is requested. Employing the readings of a standard three elements strain-gauge rosette, the method makes it possible to extend the measurement limit in comparison to that of the ASTM E837 standard (ASTM E837-08, “Standard Test Method for Determining Residual Stresses by the Hole-Drilling Strain-Gauge Method”).

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Figures

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Figure 1

Through hole error with variation in the angular orientation of the strain-gauge rosette (Ω=0.414, σeq/σys=0.90, r=0.01, centered through hole); γ3 angle measured counter-clockwise from the direction of the maximum principal stress σx to strain gauge 3.

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Figure 2

Schematic diagram showing the geometry of a type A standard ASTM strain-gauge rosette (θ=90, 225, and 0 deg)

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Figure 3

Difference between 1 (linear case), 2, and 5 Fourier coefficient curves and the strain-gauges numerically calculated in the case of Ω=0.414, σeq/σys=0.90 through hole, and r=0.05

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Figure 4

Iterative method to calculate residual stress utilizing the 3D numerical model: flowchart

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Figure 5

HBM (www.hbm.com) rosette with four strain-gauges

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Figure 6

Experimental test strains and strain curves measured around the hole at each iteration: (a) first and second iteration and (b) third and last iteration

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Figure 7

Mesh utilized for the 3D model

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Figure 8

Schematic representation of the numerical drilling sequence: (a) one, (b) three, (c) five, and (d) ten drilling steps

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