The purpose of this study is to develop a numerical methodology to simulate the fatigue damage of revolving mechanical parts under cyclic loadings (such as rolling bearings). The methodology is based on the continuum damage mechanics and on a fatigue damage model. The fatigue damage can be caused by numerous loading cycles, even in an elastic state; the damage will then influence the elastoplastic behaviors. The coupling effect of both enfeebles the material strength and leads to the rupture. An important improvement on the Sines fatigue criterion is proposed, which allows the coupling behaviors of damage and plasticity to be described better. This paper deals with the following aspects: (i) the fatigue damage model and the identification of fatigue parameters using S-N curves; (ii) the elastoplastic constitutive behaviors coupled with the fatigue damage; (iii) a cycle jumping algorithm to reduce the computation time; and (iv) an adaptative remeshing to follow the rupture propagation. These mechanical and numerical models are implemented in the framework of ABAQUS software. Two applications are presented in this paper: the fatigue lifetime prediction for a cyclic tension specimen and the fatigue spalling (or chipping) initiation and growth in a thrust roller bearing under a cyclic loading. The present approach is very efficient and helpful for the lifetime prediction of revolving mechanical components.