This paper discusses cyclic deformation and fatigue behaviors of stainless steel 304L and aluminum 7075-T6. Effects of loading sequence, mean strain or stress, and prestraining were investigated. The behavior of aluminum is shown not to be affected by preloading, whereas the behavior of stainless steel is greatly influenced by prior loading. Mean stress relaxation in strain control and ratcheting in load control and their influence on fatigue life are discussed. Some unusual mean strain test results are presented for SS304L, where in spite of mean stress relaxation fatigue lives were significantly longer than fully-reversed tests. Prestraining indicated no effect on either deformation or fatigue behavior of aluminum, while it induced considerable hardening in SS304L and led to different results on fatigue life, depending on the test control mode. Possible mechanisms for secondary hardening observed in some tests, characterized by a continuous increase in the stress response and leading to runout fatigue life, are also discussed. The Smith–Watson–Topper parameter was shown to correlate most of the experimental data for both materials under different loading conditions.