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Research Papers

Direct Fabrication of Hierarchical Microstructures on Metals by Means of Direct Laser Interference Patterning

[+] Author and Article Information
Matthias Bieda1

 Fraunhofer Institute for Material and Beam Technology, Winterbergstrasse 28, 01277 Dresden, Germanymatthias.bieda@iws.fraunhofer.de

Eckhard Beyer

 Fraunhofer Institute for Material and Beam Technology, Winterbergstrasse 28, 01277 Dresden, Germany; Institute for Surface and Manufacturing Technology, University of Technology Dresden, 01062 Dresden, Germany

Andrés F. Lasagni

 Fraunhofer Institute for Material and Beam Technology, Winterbergstrasse 28, 01277 Dresden, Germany

1

Corresponding author.

J. Eng. Mater. Technol 132(3), 031015 (Jun 24, 2010) (6 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4001835 History: Received November 30, 2009; Revised April 22, 2010; Published June 24, 2010; Online June 24, 2010

We have studied the fabrication of hierarchical periodic microstructures on metals by means of direct laser interference patterning. A nanosecond pulsed Nd:YAG laser at 355 nm wavelength was used to produce the microstructures with grating periods ranging from 1μm to 10μm on stainless steel, titanium, and aluminum. The results indicate that the geometrical characteristics of the interference patterns as well as the thermal properties of the substrates determine the quality of the fabricated structures. In particular, the best structures were obtained when the material at the interference minima position remained in the solid state and the temperature at the interference maxima is below the vaporization temperature. Thermal simulations by finite element method were carried out modeling photothermal interactions of the interference pattern with the metallic substrates to evaluate laser induced thermal effects, such as temperature distribution and temperature gradients and, thus, enabling us to explain the obtained results.

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Copyright © 2010 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

(a) Schematic of interference principle and (b) experimental setup

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Figure 2

Fabricated linelike arrays on metallic substrates with a grating period of 5 μm (one laser pulse): stainless steel (a) 0.8 J/cm2 and (d) 1.4 J/cm2, titanium (b) 0.5 J/cm2, and aluminum (c) 0.4 J/cm2

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Figure 3

Fabricated linelike arrays on metallic substrates with a grating period of 1 μm (one laser pulse): stainless steel (a) 0.6 J/cm2, titanium (b) 0.6 J/cm2, and aluminum (c) 0.6 J/cm2

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Figure 4

Fabricated crosslike structures on titanium: (a) 0.7 J/cm2, grating period 5 μm, one laser pulse; (b) 0.5 J/cm2, grating period 10 μm, one laser pulse; (c) 0.7 J/cm2 (grating period 5 μm), one laser pulse, 0.5 J/cm2 (grating period 1 μm); (d) AFM image of 3 (c), scan size: 20×20 μm2, samples/lines: 256.

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Figure 5

Fabricated hierarchical structures on titanium (a) and stainless steel (b): 0.5 J/cm2; grating period: 5 μm (0 deg), −5 μm (60 deg), −1 μm (90 deg), and one laser pulse; and 0.7 J/cm2: titanium (c)

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Figure 6

Temperature at the interference positions over energy density for grating periods of 1 μm and 5 μm on stainless steel, titanium, and aluminum

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Figure 7

Thermal gradient over energy density for grating periods of 1 μm and 5 μm on stainless steel, titanium, and aluminum

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