Various methods for the production of bulk nanostructured (NS)/ultrafine-grained (UFG) materials have been developed, including equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE), a form of severe plastic deformation. Using an ECAE NS/UFG copper bar as an example, this study has investigated machining-induced workpiece microstructure variation using X-ray diffraction. It has been found that (1) under gentle cutting conditions, there was a 10% increase in the median grain size compared with unmachined ECAE NS/UFG copper bars. Increases in the arithmetic-, area-, and volume-weighted grain sizes were found to be 10%, 8%, and 8%, respectively, and (2) an average 27% drop in the dislocation density was observed between the machined and unmachined ECAE copper bars. The dislocation density was shown to have the most reduction at the outer radius of the machined ECAE bar where more heat and/or higher pressure were experienced.