Research Papers

Hole-Within-a-Hole Method for Determining Residual Stresses

[+] Author and Article Information
A. Makino

 NASA/Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035-1000; Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-4021

D. V. Nelson1

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-4021dnelson@stanford.edu

M. R. Hill

Department of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616


Corresponding author.

J. Eng. Mater. Technol 133(2), 021020 (Mar 22, 2011) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4003496 History: Received July 03, 2010; Revised January 20, 2011; Published March 22, 2011; Online March 22, 2011

The strain gauge rosette hole drilling method is often used for determining residual stresses versus depth to depths on the order of 0.5–1.5 mm. Frequently, it is of interest to find stress profiles to greater depths. To provide such a capability, a new approach is presented. Residual stresses versus depth are found by drilling a small diameter hole incrementally to a depth of half of its diameter. The profile of stresses versus depth is found from changes in surface displacements associated with the stress relief from introducing the hole, observed by optical means. Next, a larger diameter, square-bottomed hole is milled directly over the small hole to a depth equaling that of the smaller diameter hole. The bottom of the larger hole provides a fresh surface for optical observation and incremental drilling of a new small hole. This procedure is repeated until a desired total depth is reached. A computational approach is described for correcting the stresses found from the small holes to account for the perturbation of stresses by the material removed by the larger diameter hole. Results of applying this method to find stresses versus depth in a plate subject to uniaxial bending stress and a plate with biaxial residual stresses that vary from compression to tension through the thickness are shown.

Copyright © 2011 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figure 1

Optical interference fringe pattern for a small hole being drilled incrementally

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Figure 2

HWH method of residual stress determination

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Figure 3

(a) System of tractions considered in modeling creation of a large hole layer and (b) system to reproduce the removal of material in an unstressed body

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Figure 4

Quarter view of finite element model of a small hole at the bottom of a larger hole

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Figure 5

Geometries used to find stresses incorporating the influence of both a larger hole layer and a smaller hole, and locations (•) where stresses were obtained from finite element modeling

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Figure 6

Illustration of how tractions are applied to different larger hole layers to find correction coefficients

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Figure 7

(a) Fixture holding bent plate in place with bolts, (b) location of gauges used to monitor strains applied while plate was being loaded in four point bending, (c) location of small holes used to verify bending stresses in the plate, and (d) location of gauges used to check strains as the larger hole was being deepened

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Figure 8

Comparison of stresses versus depth determined by HWH method, uncorrected and corrected for larger hole layer removal, with bending stresses (values from the first small hole do not require correction)

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Figure 9

Crack compliance specimen with biaxial strain rosettes and typical trend of slotting data at top and bottom rosettes near cut No. 1

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Figure 10

Comparison of stresses found by crack compliance (slotting) method with uncorrected and corrected stresses determined by the hole-within-a-hole method (values from the first small hole do not require correction)

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Figure 11

(a) Illustration of reduced footprint of HWH method relative to drilling a singe large diameter hole to a given depth and (b) examples of geometries that may be accessible by HWH method




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