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Research Papers

Modeling and Measurement of Residual Stresses in a Steel Vessel Containing Glass

[+] Author and Article Information
S. Nakhodchi, B. G. Thomas

Ph.D. Research Student Department of Mechanical Engineering,  University of Bristol; Bristol BS8 1TR, UK; Visiting Scholar University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 206 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering,  University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1206 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801

D. J. Smith1

Department of Mechanical Engineering,  University of Bristol, Queen’s Building, University Walk, Bristol BS8 1TR, UK e-mail: david.smith@bristol.ac.uk

1

Corresponding author.

J. Eng. Mater. Technol 133(3), 031003 (Jun 24, 2011) (10 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4004157 History: Received July 28, 2010; Revised April 22, 2011; Published June 24, 2011; Online June 24, 2011

Residual stresses in a stainless steel vessel containing glass have been evaluated using measurements and numerical simulation. High-level nuclear wastes are often vitrified in glass cast in cylindrical stainless steel containers. Knowledge of the internal stresses generated in both the glass and container during this process is critical to structural integrity and public safety. In this research, residual stresses were measured near the surface of a High Level Waste container using an Incremental Center Hole Drilling technique. Residual stress magnitudes were found to be at or near to the yield stress in the container wall. A transient finite-element thermal-stress model has been developed to simulate temperature, distortion, and stress during casting and cooling in a simple slice domain of both the glass and the container. Contact thermal-stress elements were employed to prevent penetration at the glass–container interface. Roughness of these contact surfaces was modeled as an equivalent air gap with temperature-dependent conductivity in the thermal model. The stress model features elastic-viscoplastic constitutive equations developed based on the temperature-dependent viscosity of the glass and elastic-plastic constitutive equations for the stainless steel. The simulation was performed using the commercial ABAQUS program with a user material subroutine. The model predictions are consistent with the residual stress measurements, and the complete thermal–mechanical behavior of the system is evaluated.

Copyright © 2011 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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References

Figures

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Figure 1

Dimensions of stainless steel container (in mm)

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Figure 2

(a) Location of thermocouples on the steel container and (b) time-temperature histories measured during filling of the container

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Figure 3

(a) Locations of the ICHD measurements on the stainless steel container and (b) schematic diagram of a typical three element strain gauge rosette [26]

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Figure 4

Typical measured relaxed strains (in microstrain, position 1)

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Figure 5

Average measured hoop and axial residual stress

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Figure 6

(a) Finite-element domain, (b) mesh and thermal boundary conditions, and (c) structural boundary conditions

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Figure 7

Schematic heat resistance model used in the heat transfer model

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Figure 8

Temperature dependant (a) mechanical and (b) thermal properties of stainless steel and glass

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Figure 9

Comparison between measured and FE predicted steel surface temperature

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Figure 10

Predicted temperature distribution through the glass and stainless steel

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Figure 11

Evolution of residual stress during the solidification process and comparison with yield stress

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Figure 12

Radial residual stress distribution predicted in the slice

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Figure 13

Hoop residual stress distribution predicted in the slice compared with experimentally ICHD measurement in middle of steel container wall

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Figure 14

Stress evolution inside the glass at the central axis and exterior surface (interface with stainless steel)

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Figure 15

Effect of pressure from the container wall on residual stress in glass

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