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BRIDGING MICROSTRUCTURE, PROPERTIES, AND PROCESSING OF POLYMER-BASED ADVANCED MATERIALS

Materials Design of All-Cellulose Composite Using Microstructure Based Finite Element Analysis

[+] Author and Article Information
Dongsheng Li

Fundamental and Computational Sciences Directorate,  Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352dongsheng.li@pnl.gov

Xin Sun, Mohammed A. Khaleel

Fundamental and Computational Sciences Directorate,  Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352

J. Eng. Mater. Technol. 134(1), 010911 (Dec 21, 2011) (9 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4005417 History: Received April 30, 2011; Revised September 19, 2011; Published December 21, 2011; Online December 21, 2011

A microstructure-based finite element analysis model was developed to predict the effective elastic property of cellulose nanowhisker reinforced all-cellulose composite. Analysis was based on the microstructure synthesized with assumption on volume fraction, size, and orientation distribution of cellulose nanowhiskers. Simulation results demonstrated some interesting discovery: With the increase of aspect ratio, the effective elastic modulus increases in isotropic microstructure. The elastic property anisotropy increases with the aspect ratio and anisotropy of nanowhisker orientation. Simulation results from microstructure-based finite element analysis agree well with experimental results, comparing with other homogenization methods: upper bound, lower bound, and self-consistent models. Capturing the anisotropic elastic property, the microstructure-based finite element analysis demonstrated the capability in guiding materials design to improve effective properties.

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Copyright © 2012 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

A synthesized microstructure of composite with a normal distribution of nanowhisker length and diameter

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Figure 2

ESEM micrographs of all-cellulose composite fabricated (a) without and (b) within 1.2 T magnetic field. Magnetic alignment of cellulose nanowhiskers was observed

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Figure 3

Stress–strain curves of pulp paper with and without enforcement nanowhiskers

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Figure 4

Measured elastic modulus of pulp paper without enforcement, cellulose nanowhisker, magnetic aligned 5% cellulose nanowhisker composite along magnetization direction, perpendicular to magnetic direction, 5% cellulose nanowhisker composite fabricated without magnetic field

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Figure 5

Predicted effective elastic modulus of all-cellulose composite from the Voigt, Reuss, and finite element method models, comparing with experimental results along (EXP-A) and perpendicular to (EXP-P) magnetization direction

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Figure 6

A series of synthesized microstructure of cellulose nanowhiskers with different volume fraction of nanowhiskers and aspect ratio. The composites are isotropic with uniform distribution of nanowhisker size

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Figure 7

Predicted profile of von Mises stress distribution of isotropic synthesized composites in Fig. 6 with (a) 1%, (b) 2%, and (c) 5% of nanowhiskers when uniaxially stretched to a strain of 0.2% under a vertical loading direction

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Figure 8

(a) Synthesized micrograph of composite with 5% cellulose nanowhisker with uniform nanowhisker size 400 × 20 nm. (b) Predicted von Mises stress pattern of synthetic microstructure under a vertical loading direction to a strain of 0.2%. (c) Predicted von Mises stress pattern under a horizontal loading direction

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Figure 9

Evolution of maximum von Mises stress with nanowhisker volume fraction and aspect ratio. Predictions were performed in isotropic synthesized cellulose nanowhisker composite when vertically stretched to a strain of 0.2%

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Figure 10

The relationship between the predicted effective elastic modulus and nanowhisker aspect ratios in isotropic all-cellulose composite

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Figure 11

Predicted effective elastic modulus of all-cellulose composite with 5% 50 × 20 nm nanowhiskers using Voigt, Reuss, and microstructure-based finite element analysis. For finite element analysis prediction, loading direction is vertical and three kinds of microstructures were studied: isotropic, less anisotropic aniπ/4, and more anisotropic aniπ/6

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Figure 12

(a) Synthesized micrographs of all-cellulose composite with 5% nanowhiskers of size 50 × 20 nm and different nanowhisker orientation distribution: isotropic, less anisotropic aniπ/4, and more anisotropic aniπ/6 (b) von Mises stress distribution pattern predicted by microstructure-based finite element analysis for vertical loading direction. (c) von Mises stress distribution pattern for horizontal loading direction

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Figure 13

Prediction effective elastic modulus in cellulose nanowhisker composite with same orientation distribution aniπ/6, but different aspect ratio 2.5 and 20, along different loading directions (vertical and horizontal)

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Figure 14

The relationship between the anisotropy index of predicted effective elastic modulus and the nanowhisker orientation anisotropy in all-cellulose composite with (a) 1%, (b) 2%, and (c) 5% nanowhiskers

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