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Research Papers

Design and Development of a Biaxial Tensile Test Device for a Thin Film Specimen

[+] Author and Article Information
Takahiro Namazu1

Department of Mechanical and Systems Engineering, Division of Mechanical Systems,  University of Hyogo, 2167 Shosha, Himeji, Hyogo 671-2201, Japan; PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 4-1-8 Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012, Japannamazu@eng.u-hyogo.ac.jp

Yuji Nagai, Nozomu Araki, Shozo Inoue

Department of Mechanical and Systems Engineering, Division of Mechanical Systems,  University of Hyogo, 2167 Shosha, Himeji, Hyogo 671-2201, Japan

Nobuyuki Naka

Semiconductor Systems R&D Department, HORIBA, Ltd., 2 Miyanohigashi, Kisshoin, Minami-ku, Kyoto, Kyoto 601-8510, Japan

1

Corresponding author.

J. Eng. Mater. Technol 134(1), 011009 (Dec 08, 2011) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4005348 History: Received May 23, 2011; Revised October 21, 2011; Published December 08, 2011; Online December 08, 2011

In this article, the design and development of a biaxial tensile test device and its specimen are described. The device, which was designed for evaluating the mechanical characteristics of a thin film specimen under in-plane uniaxial and biaxial tensile stress states, consists of four sets of a piezoelectric actuator, a load cell, a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT), and an actuator case including lever structures with displacement amplification function. The structures fabricated by wire electrical discharge machining are able to amplify the actuator’s displacement by a factor of 3.8 along the tensile direction. The biaxial test specimen prepared using conventional micromachining processes is composed of a cross-shaped film section and chucking parts supported by silicon springs. After square holes in four chuck parts are respectively hooked with four loading poles, the film section is tensioned to the directions where the poles get away from the center of the specimen. Tensile strain rate can be individually controlled for each tensile direction. Raman spectroscopic stress analyses demonstrated that the developed biaxial tensile test device was able to accurately apply not only uniaxial but also biaxial tensile stress to a single-crystal silicon (SCS) film specimen.

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Figures

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Figure 1

Schematic of uniaxial and biaxial tensile test specimens. The specimens are fabricated using conventional micromachining technologies.

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Figure 2

FEA models of uniaxial tensile test specimen. Stress distribution in three different types of spring were investigated by FEA.

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Figure 3

Photographs and diagram of the designed and developed biaxial tensile test apparatus for thin film specimen

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Figure 4

Mechanical chucking jig in the biaxial tensile tester. The specimen placed onto sample stage is hooked separately by four square poles on loading jigs. There is small gap between the top surface of loading jigs and the backside surface of specimen. The gap is effective for accurate tensile loading if the heights of the four loading jigs are slightly different.

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Figure 5

Schematic of displacement amplification mechanism using lever structures

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Figure 6

Displacement and stress distributions in lever structures derived from FEA

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Figure 7

Relationship between piezoelectric actuator’s voltage and loading jig’s displacement, and the photograph of lever structures. The relations between the voltage and displacement were almost the same among four tensile directions. The difference in displacement between experiment and FEA was probably caused by nonideal fixing occurred around the hatched part in experiment. The hatched part must not be deformed and moved, but actually the part was slightly deformed due to weak fixing with screw bolts.

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Figure 8

Fabricated biaxial tensile test specimen made of single crystal silicon along with the magnified photograph of the film section. The cross-shaped film section has 5 × 5 concave structures whose dimensions are 4 × 4 μm2 square and 0.2 μm depth.

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Figure 9

Relationship between the difference of peak position in Raman spectra and applied peak stress

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Figure 10

Raman peak shift map around a corner of a concave structure. The peak position distribution on specimen under uniaxial stress state(b) differs from that under biaxial stress state (c).

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