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Research Papers

Process Parameters Effect on Mechanical Properties and Fatigue Behavior of Friction Stir Weld AA6060 Joints

[+] Author and Article Information
M. Longo

Department of Design and Technologies,  University of Bergamo, Viale Marconi 5, 24044 Dalmine (BG), Italymichela.longo@unibg.it

G. D’Urso

Department of Design and Technologies,  University of Bergamo, Viale Marconi 5, 24044 Dalmine (BG), Italydurso@unibg.it

C. Giardini

Department of Design and Technologies,  University of Bergamo, Viale Marconi 5, 24044 Dalmine (BG), Italyclaudio.giardini@unibg.it

E. Ceretti

Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering,  University of Brescia, Via Branze 38, 25123 Brescia (BS), Italyelisabetta.ceretti@ing.unibs.it

J. Eng. Mater. Technol 134(2), 021006 (Mar 27, 2012) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4005916 History: Received June 23, 2011; Revised December 30, 2011; Published March 26, 2012; Online March 27, 2012

Friction stir welding (FSW) is the most remarkable welding technology that has been invented and developed in the last decade. It is a solid-state welding process in which a rotating tool is driven into the material and translated along the interface of two or more plates. This technology has been successfully used to join materials that are considered difficult to be welded by fusion welding methods. FSW has potentially significant applications in many industrial fields such as aerospace, automotive, and naval industry. Anyway, FSW technology requires a meticulous understanding of the process and consequent mechanical properties of the welds in order to be used in the production of high performance components. The present work deals with an experimental campaign aimed at the evaluation of the mechanical properties of AA6060 T6 friction stir welded joints. The butt joints obtained using two different tool geometries (standard and threaded) were performed by varying the welding parameters, namely, tool rotating speed and feed rate. The standard tool was a very simple device fabricated using AISI 1040 steel, with a flat shoulder and a cylindrical pin. The threaded tool was a more complex device based on two main components: a tool holder, with a flat shoulder, and a threaded probe obtained using a commercial thread forming tap. The quality of the joints was evaluated in terms of both tensile strength (UTS) and fatigue behavior. The study of axial pulsing fatigue properties required the fabrication of a specific testing device able to avoid parasite bending moments. In order to estimate the more efficient and effective tool type, the welding forces (axial and longitudinal) were also measured.

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Copyright © 2012 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

Details of both experimental setup and force measuring system

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Figure 2

Details of the threaded tool

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Figure 3

UTS as function of feed rate and rotational speed for both (a) standard and (b) threaded tools

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Figure 4

Comparison between a sound welded section (a) and a section with tunnel (b)

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Figure 5

Strain in correspondence of the UTS as a function of feed rate and rotational speed for both (a) standard and (b) threaded tools

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Figure 6

UTS as function of feed rate per unit revolution (mm/rev) and tool type

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Figure 7

Welding forces in Y and Z directions

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Figure 8

Average loads as a function of process and tool type for welding force in welding direction (FY)

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Figure 9

Average loads as a function of process and tool type for welding force axial direction (FZ)

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Figure 10

Details of testing device and specimen geometry

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Figure 11

Wöhler diagram, standard tool, speed 2000 rpm (a) feed rate 150 mm/min and (b) feed rate 600 mm/min

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Figure 12

Wöhler diagram, threaded tool, speed 2000 rpm (a) feed rate 150 mm/min and (b) feed rate 600 mm/min

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Figure 13

Fracture surface of the specimen for (a) 104 and (b) 105

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Figure 14

Example of fracture location on a specimen

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