Research Papers

Flexural Behavior of a Layer-to-Layer Orthogonal Interlocked Three-Dimensional Textile Composite

[+] Author and Article Information
D. Zhang

 Composite Structures Laboratory, Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Michigan, 1320 Beal Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2140

A. M. Waas1

 Composite Structures Laboratory, Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Michigan, 1320 Beal Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2140

M. Pankow

 Composite Structures Laboratory, Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Michigan, 1320 Beal Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2140; Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Aberdeen, MD 21005-5069

C. F. Yen, S. Ghiorse

 Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005-5069

Each manufacturing process has associated with it a unique set of characteristics that result in a produced part deviating from the expected ideal geometry that was intended. The set of such deviations, which is unique to each manufacturing process, is termed the “manufacturing imperfection signature” [27].

Albany Engineered Composites, Inc., NY.


Corresponding author.

J. Eng. Mater. Technol 134(3), 031009 (May 07, 2012) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4006501 History: Received October 02, 2011; Revised February 27, 2012; Published May 04, 2012; Online May 07, 2012

The flexural response of a three-dimensional (3D) layer-to-layer orthogonal interlocked textile composite has been investigated under quasi-static three-point bending. Fiber tow kinking on the compressive side of the flexed specimens has been found to be a strength limiting mechanism for both warp and weft panels. The digital image correlation (DIC) technique has been utilized to map the deformation and identify the matrix microcracking on the tensile side prior to the peak load in the warp direction loaded panels. It has been shown that the geometrical characteristics of textile reinforcement play a key role in the mechanical response of this class of material. A 3D local–global finite element (FE) model that reflects the textile architectures has been proposed to successfully capture the surface strain localizations in the predamage region. To analyze the kink banding event, the fiber tow is modeled as an inelastic degrading homogenized orthotropic solid in a state of plane stress based on Schapery Theory (ST). The predicted peak stress is in agreement with the tow kinking stress obtained from the 3D FE model.

Copyright © 2012 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figure 1

Ideal textile preform of the layer-to-layer orthogonal interlocked textile composites

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Figure 2

Optical micrographs. Fiber tow is idealized to undulate as a sinusoidal wave with an elliptical cross section.

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Figure 3

Manufacturing effect on the textile architectures. (a) Pressure is exerted during the curing cycle. (b) Schematics of actual textile architectures accounting for the manufacturing induced effects.

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Figure 4

A schematic of three-point bending test configuration. The side surface of the beam is speckled as indicated.

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Figure 5

Typical load–displacement curves. Surface strain patterns captured the damage occurrences. (a) Typical load–displacement curves. The material architecture is placed to the right to show the orientations. (b) Axial surface strain patterns (weft). (c) Axial surface strain patterns (warp).

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Figure 6

Kink band formation on the compression side of the specimen

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Figure 7

Illustration of global–local modeling strategy

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Figure 8

Construction of micromodels. In each model, only a unit width of fiber tows were modeled along its axial direction. The tows running along the width are assumed to be straight.

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Figure 9

Matrix uniaxial and shear stress–strain response curves

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Figure 10

Boundary conditions

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Figure 11

Comparison of the axial strain fields at a load point deformation of 2 mm

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Figure 12

Transverse response of the fiber tow

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Figure 13

Normalized transverse moduli plotted against the damage parameter Sr

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Figure 14

Boundary conditions for the fiber tow subjected to uniaxial compression with initial fiber misalignment angle of φ0 . ξ1  − ξ2 system designates instantaneous material frame where “1” defines fiber direction.

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Figure 15

Normalized stress–strain response of a fiber tow at various initial fiber misalignment angles. The shadow area shows the prediction from the 3D FE model.

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Figure 16

Deformed shapes at various loading levels (φ0  = 2 deg)



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