Research Papers

Study of Ductile-to-Brittle Transition in Single Grit Diamond Scribing of Silicon: Application to Wire Sawing of Silicon Wafers

[+] Author and Article Information
Hao Wu, Shreyes N. Melkote

The George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering,  Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332

J. Eng. Mater. Technol 134(4), 041011 (Sep 04, 2012) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4006177 History: Received October 09, 2011; Accepted February 10, 2012; Published September 04, 2012; Online September 04, 2012

The ductile-to-brittle cutting mode transition in single grit diamond scribing of monocrystalline silicon is investigated in this paper. Specifically, the effects of scriber tip geometry, coefficient of friction, and external hydrostatic pressure on the critical depth of cut associated with ductile-to-brittle transition and crack generation are studied via an eXtended Finite Element Method (XFEM) based model, which is experimentally validated. Scribers with a large tip radius are shown to produce lower tensile stresses and a larger critical depth of cut compared with scribers with a sharp tip. Spherical tipped scribers are shown to generate only surface cracks, while sharp tipped scribers (conical, Berkovich and Vickers) are found to create large subsurface tensile stresses, which can lead to nucleation of subsurface median/lateral cracks. Lowering the friction coefficient tends to increase the critical depth of cut and hence the extent of ductile mode cutting. The results also show that larger critical depth of cut can be obtained under external hydrostatic pressure. This knowledge is expected to be useful in optimizing the design and application of the diamond coated wire employed in fixed abrasive diamond wire sawing of photovoltaic silicon wafers.

Copyright © 2012 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figure 1

Surface morphology in diamond scribing of (111) mono silicon at depths of 0.123 μm (left), 0.722 μm (middle), and 1.225 μm (right); spherical tip scriber with 8 μm tip radius used

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Figure 2

Constitutive material model for silicon

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Figure 3

Scriber I geometry (sketch on left is model of scriber tip portion only)

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Figure 4

Scriber II geometry (sketch on left is model of scriber tip portion only)

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Figure 5

Principal stress and crack generation for Scriber II (scriber not shown)

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Figure 6

Crack propagation patterns (left figures: crack initiation, right figures: crack propagation)

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Figure 7

Evolution of stress with scribing depth

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Figure 8

Scribing test setup

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Figure 9

(a) Ductile flow prior to crack, (b) measured, and (c) simulated crack paths for Scriber I

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Figure 10

Effect of friction and scribing depth on stress evolution (spherical scriber with 3 μm tip radius)

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Figure 11

Effect of tip radius and friction on critical depth for spherical tip

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Figure 12

Subsurface stress contours (in a section normal to scribing direction) for a 150 deg conical tip and 2.6 nm scribing depth

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Figure 13

Effect of included angle and depth on stress for conical scriber

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Figure 14

Stresses and cracks generated by Berkovich tip: edge leading (a) and (c) and face leading (b) and (d)

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Figure 15

Effect of hydrostatic pressure and depth on stress for a spherical scriber (3 μm tip radius)




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