Research Papers

Effect of Interfaces in the Work Hardening of Nanoscale Multilayer Metallic Composites During Nanoindentation: A Molecular Dynamics Investigation

[+] Author and Article Information
S. Shao

e-mail: shuai.shao@email.wsu.edu

H. M. Zbib

e-mail: zbib@wsu.edu

I. Mastorakos

e-mail: mastorakos@wsu.edu

D. F. Bahr

e-mail: dbahr@wsu.edu
School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering,
Washington State University,
Pullman, WA 99164

Contributed by the Materials Division of ASME for publication in the Journal of Engineering Materials and Technology. Manuscript received October 25, 2011; final manuscript received April 12, 2012; published online March 25, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Hamid Garmestani.

J. Eng. Mater. Technol 135(2), 021001 (Mar 25, 2013) (8 pages) Paper No: MATS-11-1238; doi: 10.1115/1.4023672 History: Received October 25, 2011; Revised April 12, 2012

To study the strain hardening in nanoscale multilayer metallic (NMM) composites, atomistic simulations of nanoindentation are performed on CuNi, CuNb, and CuNiNb multilayers. The load-depth data were converted to hardness-strain data that were then modeled using power law. The plastic deformation of the multilayers is closely examined. It is found that the strain hardening in the incoherent CuNb and NiNb interfaces is stronger than the coherent CuNi interface. The hardening parameters are discovered to be closely related to the density of the dislocations in the incoherent interfaces, which in turn is found to have power law dependence on two length scales: indentation depth and layer thickness. Based on these results, a constitutive law for extracting strain hardening in NMM from nanoindentation data is developed.

Copyright © 2013 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Was, G. S., and Foecke, T., 1996, “Deformation and Fracture in Microlaminates,” Thin Solid Films, 286. [CrossRef]
Clemens, B. M., Kung, H., and Barnett, S. A., 1999, “Structure and Strength of Multilayers,” MRS Bull., 24 (2), p. 20.
Misra, A., and Kung, H., 2001, “Deformation Behavior of Nanostructured Metallic Multilayers,” Adv. Eng. Mater., 3, p. 217. [CrossRef]
Rao, S. I., and Hazzledine, P. M., 2000, “Atomistic Simulations of Dislocation-Interface Interactions in the Cu-Ni Multilayer System,” Phil. Mag. A, 80, pp. 2011–2040. [CrossRef]
Hoagland, R. G., Mitchell, T. E., Hirth, J. P., and Kung, H., 2002, “On the Strengthening Effects of Interfaces in Multilayer Fee Metallic Composites,” Phil. Mag. A, 82(4), pp. 643–664. [CrossRef]
Hoagland, R. G., Hirth, J. P., and Misra, A., 2006, “On the Role of Weak Interfaces in Blocking Slip in Nanoscale Layered Composites,” Phil. Mag., 86(23), pp. 3537–3558. [CrossRef]
Misra, A., Hirth, J. P., and Kung, H., 2002, “Single-Dislocation-Based Strengthening Mechanisms in Nanoscale Metallic Multilayers,” Phil. Mag. A, 82(16), pp. 2935–2951. [CrossRef]
Misra, A., Hirth, J. P., and Hoagland, R. G., 2005, “Length-Scale-Dependent Deformation Mechanisms in Incoherent Metallic Multilayered Composites,” Acta Mater., 53, pp. 4817–4824. [CrossRef]
Wang, J., Hoagland, R. G., Hirth, J. P., and Misra, A., 2008, “Atomistic Modeling of the Interaction of Glide Dislocations With “Weak” Interfaces,” Acta Mater., 56, p. 5685. [CrossRef]
Mastorakos, I. N., Zbib, H. M., and Bahr, D. F., 2009, “Deformation Mechanisms and Strength in Nanoscale Multilayer Metallic Composites With Coherent and Incoherent Interfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett., 94, p. 173114. [CrossRef]
Akasheh, F., Zbib, H. M., Hirth, J. P., Hoagland, R. G., and Misra, A. J., 2007, “Dislocation Dynamics Analysis of Dislocation Intersections in Nanoscale Metallic Multilayered Composites,” Appl. Phys., 101, p. 084314. [CrossRef]
Akasheh, F., Zbib, H. M., Hirth, J. P., Hoagland, R. G., and Misra, A. J., 2007, “Interactions Between Glide Dislocations and Parallel Interfacial Dislocations in Nanoscale Strained Layers,” Appl. Phys., 102, p. 034314. [CrossRef]
Medyanik, S. N., and Shao, S., 2009, “Strengthening Effects of Coherent Interfaces in Nanoscale Metallic Bilayers,” Comp. Mater. Sci., 45, p. 1129. [CrossRef]
Shao, S., and Medyanik, S. N., 2010, “Dislocation-Interface Interaction in Nanoscale fcc Metallic Bilayers,” Mech. Res. Comm., 37, p. 315. [CrossRef]
Shao, S., and Medyanik, S. N., 2010, “Interaction of Dislocations With Incoherent Interfaces in Nanoscale FCC-BCC Metallic Bi-Layers,” Modeling Simul. Mater. Sci. Eng., 18, p. 055010. [CrossRef]
Overman, N. R., Overman, C. T., Zbib, H. M., and Bahr, D. F., 2009, “Yield and Deformation in Biaxially Stressed Multilayer Metallic Thin Films,” J. Eng. Mater. Tech., 131, p. 041203-1. [CrossRef]
Bellou, A., Overman, C. T., Zbib, H. M., Bahr, D. F., and Misra, A., 2010, “Strength and Strain Hardening Behavior of Cu-Based Bilayers and Trilayers,” Script. Mater., 64, pp. 641–644. [CrossRef]
Misra, A., Zhang, X., Hammon, D., and Hoagland, R. G., 2004, “Work Hardening in Rolled Nanolayered Metallic Composites,” Acta Mater., 53, pp. 221–226. [CrossRef]
Van Vliet, K. J., Li, J., Zhu, T., Yip, S., and Suresh, S., 2003, “Quantifying the Early Stages of Plasticity Through Nanoscale Experiments and Simulations,” Phys. Rev. B, 67, p. 104105. [CrossRef]
Ju, S. P., Wang, C. T., Chien, C. H., Huang, J. C., and Jian, S. R., 2007, “The Nanoindentation Responses of Nickel Surfaces With Different Crystal Orientations,” Molecular Simul., 33, p. 905. [CrossRef]
Hasnaoui, A., Derlet, P. M., and Swygenhoven, H. V., 2004, “Interaction Between Dislocations and Grain Boundaries Under an Indenter—A Molecular Dynamics Simulation,” Acta Mater., 52, p. 2251. [CrossRef]
Saraev, D., and Miller, R. E., 2005, “Atomistic Simulation of Nanoindentation Into Copper Multilayers,” Model. Simul. Mater. Sci. Eng., 13, p. 1089. [CrossRef]
Saraev, D., and Miller, R. E., 2006, “Atomic-Scale Simuluations of Nanoindentation-Induced Plasticity in Copper Crystals With Nanometer-Sized Nickel Coatings,” Acta Mater., 54, pp. 33–45. [CrossRef]
Mastorakos, I. N., Bellou, A., Bahr, D. F., and Zbib, H. M., 2011, “Size-Dependent Strength in Nanolaminate Metallic Systems,” J. Mater. Res., 26, p. 1179. [CrossRef]
Plimpton, S., 1995, “Fast Parallel Algorithms for Short-Range Molecular Dynamics,” J. Comp. Phys., 117, pp. 1–19. [CrossRef]
Sandia National Laboratories, 2012, “LAMMPS Molecular Dynamics Simulator,” lammps.sandia.gov
Voter, A. F., and Chen, S. P., 1987, “Accurate Interatomic Potentials for Ni, Al and Ni3Al,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc., 186, p. 175.
Zhang, Q., Lai, W. S., and Liu, B. X., 2000, “Atomic Structure and Physical Properties of Ni-Nb Amorphous Alloys Determined by an n-Body Potential,” J. Noncryst. Solids, 261, p. 137. [CrossRef]
Salehinia, I., and Medyanik, S. N., 2011, “Effects of Vacancies on the Onset of Plasticity in Metals—An Atomistic Simulation Study,” Metal. Mater. Trans., 42(13), pp. 3868–3874. [CrossRef]
Johnson, K. L., 1970, “The Correlation of Indentation Experiments,” J. Mech. Phys. Solids, 18, p. 115. [CrossRef]
O'Neil, H., 1951, Hardness Measurements of Metals and Alloys. Chapman Hall, London.
O'Neil, H., 1944, “The Significance of Tensile and Other Mechanical Test Properties of Metals,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., 151, p. 116. [CrossRef]
Tabor, D., 1951, The Hardness of Metals. Clarendon Press, Oxford, UK.
Heino, P., 2001, “Microstructure and Shear Strength of a Cu-Ta Interface,” Comp. Mater. Sci., 20, pp. 157–167. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Simulation setup of the nanoindentations in this work

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Load depth curves and plastic portion of the converted hardness-strain curves of CuNi, CuNb, and CuNiNb multilayers. Individual layer thickness h = 30Å, indenter radius R = 90Å.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

The variation of K* (a)–(c) and n* (d)–(f) with respect to individual layer thickness. The different graphs ((a)–(c) and (d)–(f)) show this variation under different indenter radii: ((a) and (d)) for R = 60Å, ((b) and (e)) for R = 90Å and ((c) and (f)) for R = 150Å. Error bars represent 95% confidence bounds.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Snapshots of atomistic configurations of CuNi ((a)–(c)), CuNb ((e)–(g)), and CuNiNb ((h)–(j)) configures with variable individual layers thickness (20Å, 30Å, and 50Å) at indentation depth of 20Å; the indenter radius used in this figure is 90Å. Other simulations using larger indenter are not shown for brevity. In this figure, atomic defects, e.g., dislocation lines, incoherent interfaces are detected using centro-symmetry parameter (CSP) [30]. Atoms are colored as following to indentify fcc interfaces: red for Cu, blue for Ni, and yellow for Nb. The dislocation lines in fcc layers are all Shockley partial dislocations; the stacking faults are not shown for better visibility.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

(a) Plot of ρi(27Å) versus interfacial number i. (b) Plot of ρ¯ versus individual layer thickness h, for d = 27Å

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Plots of exponent n* versus total interfacial shear ρ¯(d) (left) and prefactor K* versus total interfacial shear ρ¯(d). Where d = 27Å is taken.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Snapshots of atomistic configurations of CuNiNb (a) and NiCuNb (b) indented by an indenter with radius R = 90Å at depth d = 20Å

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Demonstration of the hardening effect of CuNi, CuNb, and CuNiNb interfaces with the variation of ρ¯(d). Here d = 27Å is taken as an example as before.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Plot of ρ¯(d) versus h*/R when d = 27Å



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In