The mechanical and thermal behavior of small volume metallic compounds on the fast transient time are addressed in this work through developing a thermodynamically consistent nonlocal framework. In this regard, an enhanced gradient plasticity theory is coupled with the application of the micromorphic approach to the temperature variable. The yield function of the VA–FCC (Voyiadjis Abed Face Centered Cubic) model based on the concept of thermal activation energy and the dislocations interaction mechanisms including nonlinear hardening is taken into consideration in the derivation. The effect of the material microstructural interface between two materials is also incorporated in the formulation with both temperature and rate effects. In order to accurately address the strengthening and hardening mechanisms, the theory is developed based on the decomposition of the mechanical state variables into energetic and dissipative counterparts which provided the constitutive equations to have both energetic and dissipative gradient length scales for the bulk material and the interface. Moreover, the nonlocal evolution of temperature is addressed by incorporating the microstructural interaction effect in the fast transient process using two time scales in the microscopic heat equation.