Research Papers

Identification of Material Constitutive Laws Representative of Machining Conditions for Two Titanium Alloys: Ti6Al4V and Ti555-3

[+] Author and Article Information
G. Germain

e-mail: guenael.germain@ensam.eu

A. Morel

e-mail: anne.morel@ensam.eu
Arts et Métiers ParisTech,
2 Bd de Ronceray,
Angers, 49000France

T. Braham-Bouchnak

IUT Nantes, IRCCyN,
2 avenue du Professeur Jean Rouxel,
Carquefou, 44475France
e-mail: tarek.braham-bouchnak@univ-nantes.fr

Contributed by the Materials Division of ASME for publication in the Journal of Engineering Materials and Technology. Manuscript received May 22, 2012; final manuscript received January 17, 2013; published online May 2, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Georges Cailletaud.

J. Eng. Mater. Technol 135(3), 031002 (May 02, 2013) (11 pages) Paper No: MATS-12-1104; doi: 10.1115/1.4023674 History: Received May 22, 2012; Revised January 17, 2013

Determining a material constitutive law that is representative of the extreme conditions found in the cutting zone during machining operations is a very challenging problem. In this study, dynamic shear tests, which reproduce, as faithfully as possible, these conditions in terms of strain, strain rate, and temperature, have been developed using hat-shaped specimens. The objective was to identify the parameters of a Johnson–Cook material behavior model by an inverse method for two titanium alloys: Ti6Al4V and Ti555-3. In order to be as representative as possible of the experimental results, the parameters of the Johnson–Cook model were not considered to be constant over the total range of the strain rate and temperature investigated. This reflects a change in the mechanisms governing the deformation. The shear zones observed in hat-shaped specimens were analyzed and compared to those produced in chips during conventional machining for both materials. It is concluded that the observed shear bands can be classified as white-etching bands only for the Ti555-3 alloy. These white bands are assumed to form more easily in the Ti555-3 alloy due to its predominately β phase microstructure compared to the Ti6Al4V alloy with a α + β microstructure.

Copyright © 2013 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Ezugwu, E. O., Bonney, J., and Yamane, Y., 2003, “An Overview of the Machinability of Aeroengine Alloys,” J. Mater. Process. Tech., 134(2), pp. 233–253. [CrossRef]
Ezugwu, E. O., and Wang, Z. M., 1997, “Titanium Alloys and Their Machinability—A Review,” J. Mater. Process. Tech., 68(3), pp. 262–274. [CrossRef]
Ohkubo, C., Watanabe, I., and Ford, J. P., 2000, “The Machinability of Cast Titanium and Ti–6Al–4V,” Biomaterials, 21(4), pp. 421–428. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Shaw, M. C., Dirke, S. O., and Smith, P. A., 1954, “Machining Titanium,” MIT Rep., 4th ed., Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA.
Komanduri, R., and Von Turkovich, B. F., 1981, “New Observations on the Mechanism of Chip Formation When Machining Titanium Alloys,” Wear, 69(2), pp. 179–188. [CrossRef]
Barry, J., Byrne, G., and Lennon, D., 2001, “Observations on Chip Formation and Acoustic Emission in Machining Ti-6Al-4V Alloy,” Int. J. Mach. Tool. Manu., 41(7), pp. 1055–1070. [CrossRef]
Bayoumi, A. E., and Xie, J. Q., 1995, “Some Metallurgical Aspects of Chip Formation in Cutting Ti-6wt.%Al-4wt.%V Alloy,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 190(1–2), pp. 173–180. [CrossRef]
Komanduri, R., 1982, “Some Clarifications on the Mechanics of Chip Formation When Machining Titanium Alloys,” Wear, 76(1), pp. 15–34. [CrossRef]
Nemat-Nasser, S., Guo, W., and Nesterenko, V. F., 2001, “Dynamic Response of Conventional and Hot Isostatically Pressed Ti-6Al-4V Alloys: Experiments and Modeling,” Mech. Mater., 33(8), pp. 425–439. [CrossRef]
Molinari, A., Musquar, C., and Sutter, G., 2002, “Adiabatic Shear Banding in High Speed Machining of Ti-6Al-4V: Experiments and Modeling,” Int. J. Plasticity, 18(4), pp. 443–459. [CrossRef]
Puerta Velásquez, J. D., Bolle, B., and Chevrier, P., 2007, “Metallurgical Study on Chips Obtained by High Speed Machining of a Ti–6 wt.%Al–4 wt.%V Alloy,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 452–453, pp. 469–474. [CrossRef]
Vyas, A., and Shaw, M. C., 1999, “Mechanics of Saw-Tooth Chip Formation in Metal Cutting,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 121(2), pp. 163–172. [CrossRef]
Mabrouki, T., and Rigal, J., 2006, “A Contribution to a Qualitative Understanding of Thermo-Mechanical Effects During Chip Formation in Hard Turning,” J. Mater. Process. Tech., 176(1–3), pp. 214–221. [CrossRef]
Vaz, Jr., M., Owen, D. R. J., and Kalhori, V., 2007, “Modelling and Simulation of Machining Processes,” Arch. Comput. Method. Eng., 14(2), pp. 173–204. [CrossRef]
Guo, Y. B., and Yen, D. W., 2004, “A FEM Study on Mechanisms of Discontinuous Chip Formation in Hard Machining,” J. Mater. Process. Tech., 155–156, pp. 1350–1356. [CrossRef]
Dassault Systèmes Simulia, C., 2008, ABAQUS Version 6.8 documentation.
Shrot, A., and Bäker, M., 2012, “Determination of Johnson–Cook Parameters From Machining Simulations,” Comp. Mater. Sci., 52(1), pp. 298–304. [CrossRef]
AlbertJ. S., 1996, “Finite Element Analysis of Orthogonal Metal Cutting Mechanics,” Int. J. Mach. Tool. Manu., 36(2), pp. 255–273. [CrossRef]
Hayes, F. H., 1995, “The Al-Ti-V (Aluminum-Titanium-Vanadium) System,” J. Phase Equilib., 16(2), pp. 163–176. [CrossRef]
Hartman, K. H., Kunze, H. D., and Meyer, L. W., 1981, “Metallurgical Effects on Impact Loaded Materials,” Shock Waves and High-Strain-Rate Phenomena in Metals, M. A. Meyers and L. E. Murr, eds., Plenum Press, New York, pp. 325–337.
Meyers, M. A., Subhash, G., and Kad, B. K., 1994, “Evolution of Microstructure and Shear-Band Formation in α-Hcp Titanium,” Mech. Mater., 17(2–3), pp. 175–193. [CrossRef]
Lee, W., and Lin, C., 1998, “High-Temperature Deformation Behaviour of Ti6Al4V Alloy Evaluated by High Strain-Rate Compression Tests,” J. Mater. Process. Tech., 75(1–3), pp. 127–136. [CrossRef]
Ankem, S., Shyue, J. G., and Vijayshankar, M. N., 1989, “The Effect of Volume Per Cent of Phase on the High Temperature Tensile Deformation of Two-Phase Ti-Mn Alloys,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 111, pp. 51–61. [CrossRef]
Ding, R., and Guo, Z. X., 2004, “Microstructural Evolution of a Ti-6Al-4V Alloy During β-Phase Processing: Experimental and Simulative Investigations,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 365(1–2), pp. 172–179. [CrossRef]
Johnson, G. R., and Cook, W. H., 1983, “A Constitutive Model and Data for Metals Subjected to Large Strains, High Strain Rates and High Temperatures,” Proceeding 7th International Symposium on Ballistics, The Hague, April 19–21, pp. 541–547.
Bäker, M., 2006, “Finite Element Simulation of High-Speed Cutting Forces,” J. Mater. Process. Tech., 176(1–3), pp. 117–126. [CrossRef]
Calamaz, M., Coupard, D., and Girot, F., 2010, “Numerical Simulation of Titanium Alloy Dry Machining With a Strain Softening Constitutive Law,” Mach. Sci. Tech., 14(2), pp. 244–257. [CrossRef]
Zerilli, F. J., and Armstrong, R. W., 1987, “Dislocation-Mechanics-Based Constitutive Relations for Material Dynamics Calculations,” J. Appl. Phys., 61(5), pp. 1816–1825. [CrossRef]
Lemaitre, J., and Chaboche, J. L., 1990, Mechanics of Solid Materials, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, MA.
Levenberg, K., 1944, “A Method for the Solution of Certain Nonlinear Problems in Least Squares,” Quart. Appl. Math., 2(2), pp. 164–168.
Marquardt, D. W., 1963, “An Algorithm for Least-Squares Estimation of Nonlinear Parameters,” J. Soc. Ind. Appl. Math., 11(2), pp. 431–441. [CrossRef]
Galassi, M., Davies, J., and Theiler, J., 2003, GNU Scientific Library Reference Manual, Network Theory Limited, Bristol, UK.
Cao, Z., He, N., and Li, L., 2008, “Chip Formation and Its Numerical Simulation in High Speed Cutting of Ti6Al4V Alloy,” Zhongguo Jixie Gongcheng/Chin. Mech. Eng., 19(20), pp. 2450–2454.
Macdougall, D. A. S., and Harding, J., 1998, “The Measurement of Specimen Surface Temperature in High-Speed Tension and Torsion Tests,” Int. J. Impact Eng., 21(6), pp. 473–488. [CrossRef]
Khan, A. S., Sung Suh, Y., and Kazmi, R., 2004, “Quasi-Static and Dynamic Loading Responses and Constitutive Modeling of Titanium Alloys,” Int. J. Plasticity, 20(12), pp. 2233–2248. [CrossRef]
Meyer, Jr., H. W., and Kleponis, D. S., 2001, “Modeling the High Strain Rate Behavior of Titanium Undergoing Ballistic Impact and Penetration,” Int. J. Impact Eng., 26(1–10), pp. 509–521. [CrossRef]
Lesuer, D. R., 2000, “Experimental Investigations of Material Models for Ti-6Al-4V Titanium and 2024-T3 Aluminum,” Office of Aviation Research (USA), Technical Report PB2001-101864 DOT/FAA/AR-00/25.
Lee, W., and Lin, C., 1998, “Plastic Deformation and Fracture Behaviour of Ti-6Al-4V Alloy Loaded With High Strain Rate Under Various Temperatures,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 241(1–2), pp. 48–59. [CrossRef]
Hor, A., 2010, “Simulation Physique Des Procédés De Fabrication: Caractérisation De La Rhéologie Et De l'Endommagement Lors d'Opérations De Forgeage Et d'Usinage,” Ph.D. thesis, Arts et Métiers ParisTech, France.
Zemzemi, F., 2007, “Caractérisation De Modèles De Frottement Aux Interfaces Pièce-Outil-Copeau En Usinage: Application Au Cas De l'Usinage Des Aciers Et De l'Inconel 718,” Ph.D. Thesis, Ecole Centrale de Lyon, France.
Calamaz, M., Coupard, D., and Nouari, M., 2011, “Numerical Analysis of Chip Formation and Shear Localisation Processes in Machining the Ti-6Al-4V Titanium Alloy,” Int. J. Adv. Manu. Tech., 52(9–12), pp. 887–895. [CrossRef]
Sun, S., Brandt, M., and Dargusch, M. S., 2009, “Characteristics of Cutting Forces and Chip Formation in Machining of Titanium Alloys,” Int. J. Mach. Tool. Manu., 49(7–8), pp. 561–568. [CrossRef]
Ramesh, A., Melkote, S. N., and Allard, L. F., 2005, “Analysis of White Layers Formed in Hard Turning of AISI 52100 Steel,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 390(1–2), pp. 88–97. [CrossRef]
Poulachon, G., Albert, A., and Schluraff, M., 2005, “An Experimental Investigation of Work Material Microstructure Effects on White Layer Formation in PCBN Hard Turning,” Int. J. Mach. Tool. Manu., 45(2), pp. 211–218. [CrossRef]
Xu, Y., Zhang, J., and Bai, Y., 2008, “Shear Localization in Dynamic Deformation: Microstructural Evolution,” Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 39(4), pp. 811–843. [CrossRef]
Xu, Y. B., Liu, L., and Yu, J. Q., 2000, “Thermoplastic Shear Localisation in Titanium Alloys During Dynamic Deformation,” Mater. Sci. Tech., 16(6), pp. 609–611. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Microstructures of the two titanium alloys investigated (a) Ti555-3 and (b) Ti6Al4V

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Shear zones created during the cutting process

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Hat-shaped specimen

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Force-displacement curves for different temperatures for (a) the Ti555-3 alloy and (b) the Ti6Al4V alloy

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Force-displacement curves for different displacement rates for (a) the Ti555-3 alloy and (b) the Ti6Al4V alloy

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Evolution of the maximum force as a function of displacement rate

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Flow chart identification procedure of Johnson–Cook parameters

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Experimental and numerical force-displacement curves for (a) the Ti555-3 alloy and (b) the Ti6Al4V alloy at ambient temperature and quasi-static strain rate

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Evolution of the parameter m for the two titanium alloys as a function of temperature

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Evolution of the parameter C pour for the two titanium alloys as a function of the strain rate

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Comparison between the experimental and numerical force-displacement curves at different temperature for the Johnson–Cook model identified for Ti555-3 alloy (strain rate = 1 s−1)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Observation of white bands in ZI and ZII (Ti555-3, tool CP500, Vc = 90 m/min, f = 0.15 mm/rev)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Comparison between the shear zones created in a hat-shaped specimen and chips formed during machining (Ti555-3)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

White band thickness as a function of the test temperature for hat-shaped specimens for the Ti555-3 alloy and a strain rate of 1 s−1

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Phase percentages measured in the base metal and chips resulting from different machining conditions (Ti555-3)




Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In