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Research Papers

Forming Limit Diagram Determination of Al 3105 Sheets and Al 3105/Polypropylene/Al 3105 Sandwich Sheets Using Numerical Calculations and Experimental Investigations

[+] Author and Article Information
M. H. Parsa

Professor
School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering,
College of Engineering,
University of Tehran,
P.O. Box 11155/4563,
14399 Tehran, Iran
e-mail: mhparsa@ut.ac.ir

M. Ettehad

Zachry Department of Civil Engineering,
Texas A&M University,
College Station, TX 77843
e-mail: mah.ettehad@gmail.com

P. H. Matin

Associate Professor
Department of Engineering and
Aviation Sciences,
University of Maryland Eastern Shore,
Princess Anne, MD 21853
e-mail: phmatin@umes.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Materials Division of ASME for publication in the Journal of Engineering Materials and Technology. Manuscript received April 6, 2012; final manuscript received December 19, 2012; published online May 6, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Mohammad A. Khaleel.

J. Eng. Mater. Technol 135(3), 031003 (May 06, 2013) (12 pages) Paper No: MATS-11-1078; doi: 10.1115/1.4023848 History: Received April 06, 2011; Revised December 19, 2012

Sandwich sheet structures are gaining a wide array of applications in the aeronautical, marine, automotive, and civil engineering fields. Since such sheets can be subjected to forming/stamping processes, it is crucial to characterize their limiting amount of deformation before trying out any forming/stamping process. To achieve this goal, sandwich sheets of Al 3105/polymer/Al 3105 were prepared using thin film hot melt adheres. Through an experimental effort, forming limit diagrams (FLDs) of the prepared sandwich sheets were evaluated. In addition, simulation efforts were conducted to predict the FLDs of the sandwich sheets using finite element analysis (FEA) by considering the Gurson–Tvergaard–Needleman (GTN) damage model. The agreement among the experimental results and simulated predictions was promising. The effects of different parameters such as polymer core thickness, aluminum face sheet thickness, and shape constraints were investigated on the FLDs.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Schematic view of sandwich sheets

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Fig. 2

Schematic FEM model of the tools used for the determination of the forming limit diagrams

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Fig. 3

True stress-strain curves

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Fig. 4

Fibrillation at the aluminum-polymer interface

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Fig. 5

Details of the punch stretch tooling used in the study

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Fig. 6

Blank sandwich samples prepared with different widths for the punch stretching test

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Fig. 7

Schematic representation of the safe and necked ellipses used for the experimental determination of the FLD [8]

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Fig. 8

Experimental deformed sandwich sheet specimens

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Fig. 9

Experimental FLD: (a) 2 mm sandwich sheet, (b) 1.2 mm sandwich sheet, and (c) 0.5 mm monolayer aluminum sheet

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Fig. 10

Experimental FLD of sandwich sheets with different aluminum face sheet thicknesses

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Fig. 11

Geometry of the experimental specimen and simulated model for the FLD determination

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Fig. 12

Experimentally determined and numerically predicted FLD for the 2 mm sandwich sheet with 0.5 mm aluminum face sheet

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Fig. 13

Numerically obtained FLDs for both the 2 mm sandwich sheet and the 1.85 mm aluminum monolayer sheet

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Fig. 14

Through thickness void volume fraction for the sandwich sheets at the punch nose

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Fig. 15

Variation of the mean (hydrostatic) stress distribution through the thickness direction for two simulated models of monolayer sheets

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Fig. 16

Variation of the mean (hydrostatic) stress distribution through the thickness direction for the simulated narrow and wide sandwich sheets

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Fig. 17

Mean (hydrostatic) tensile stress in the balanced biaxial state

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Fig. 18

Void volume fraction distributions through the specimen width at a step right before the macro crack formation for the 2 mm sandwich sheet and the 1.85 mm monolayer sheet

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