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Technical Briefs

The Effect of Deposition Patterns on the Deformation of Substrates During Direct Laser Fabrication

[+] Author and Article Information
Zemin Wang

e-mail: zmwang@hust.edu.cn

Xiaoyan Zeng

Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics,
Huazhong University of Science and Technology,
Wuhan 430074, PRC

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Materials Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS AND TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received May 1, 2011; final manuscript received March 28, 2013; published online May 8, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Jefferey Kysar.

J. Eng. Mater. Technol 135(3), 034502 (May 08, 2013) (6 pages) Paper No: MATS-11-1106; doi: 10.1115/1.4024195 History: Received May 01, 2011; Revised March 28, 2013

The deformation of substrate caused by laser scanning pattern during direct laser fabrication (DLF) is ignored in spite of its importance to the final dimension accuracy. In this paper, in order to investigate the effect of deposition pattern on the deformation of substrate during DLF, eight laser scanning patterns are designed to build a cylinder on an asymmetrical IN718 arc substrate, respectively. Deformations of substrates along x, y, z-directions after DLF and heat treatment are compared and discussed. Meanwhile, the maximum displacement in z-direction of each substrate is calculated. Besides, a modified temperature gradient mechanism (TGM) is introduced to understand deformations of substrates under different laser scanning patterns. The results show that the deformation of substrate along z-direction is much larger than other two directions for all scanning patterns. The deformation of substrate strongly depends on x- and y-directional dimension of the substrate when a symmetrical build is fabricated. Compared with contour-offset scanning patterns, raster scanning patterns have distinct directional effect on deformations of substrates. Especially, the deformations of substrates caused by laser fabrication are permanent. In order to improve the fabrication efficiency, to and fro laser scan along the short dimension direction is preferred during DLF for generating the minimum deformation to substrate and reducing unnecessary movements of the working table.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Schematic image of direct laser fabrication equipment

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Fig. 2

The upper surface of an IN718 substrate with marked points

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Fig. 3

Schematic images of different scanning patterns used in DLF experiments with (a) to and fro raster scanning pattern alternately, (b) one-way raster scanning pattern alternately, (c) to and fro raster scanning pattern along x-direction for all layers, (d) one-way raster scanning pattern along x-direction for all layers, (e) to and fro raster scanning pattern along y-direction for all layers, (f) one-way raster scanning pattern along y-direction for all layers, (g) inside to outside contour-offset scanning pattern, and (h) outside to inside contour-offset scanning pattern

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Fig. 4

The heat treatment rule for the substrates after DLF

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Fig. 5

The photo of a fabricated IN718 solid cylinder on a marked substrate

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Fig. 6

The change of coordinates of each substrate before and after DLF for different scanning patterns with (a) pattern 1, (b) pattern 2, (c) pattern 3, (d) pattern 4, (e) pattern 5, (f) pattern 6, (g) pattern 7, and (h) pattern 8 shown in Fig. 3

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Fig. 7

The maximum displacement in z-direction of every line for different scanning patterns

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Fig. 8

The change of coordinates of the substrate after DLF and heat treatment for two scanning patterns with (a) pattern 4 and (b) pattern 6 shown in Fig. 3

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Fig. 9

SEM of cracks at the interfaces of the substrate/first layer and the first layer/second layer

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